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阅读中的功能词块对高中英语学习者书面表达中连贯的影响 ——一项行动研究

【作者】 张洁然

【导师】 徐浩;

【作者基本信息】 首都师范大学, 学科教学, 2017, 硕士

【副题名】一项行动研究

【摘要】 语篇是为了传递文字信息。理解语篇的关键在于如何从语篇组织的形式上分离作者要传达的信息。因此,从宏观的角度讲,就是如何从词汇于段中寻找作者的思路,把握作者思路的变化,而这些通常都是通过语篇标示词(discourse markers)来连接的。不同题材、体裁的文章有不同的组篇形式,如文章的开头、相邻段落的衔接过渡和结尾,叙事体和论说文都有自己常规的词语显性标示。能够帮助提高语篇理解的词块于段也是用来加速语篇加工的手段,二者是相辅相成的。以书面语篇加工为例,理解并记住更多的词块,可以节省从思维到词语再现和词语整个认知过程中的努力,因为这些词块串联起来,就好比是一篇文章的框架,而且对于观点的起承转结都有相应的词块形式共选用。所以熟悉这些词块的形式和用法,既可以加快语篇的理解,又能在加工语篇时促进语篇的语义和结构的连贯性,提高文章的可读性和美感。本研究旨在利用词块的这些特点和功能培养学生利用discourse markers(本论文中作者用functional phrases)理解、构建语篇的意识和积累词块的意识,并学习词块,进而应用到语篇加工中,提高其语篇的可读性和连贯性。本论文共分五部分:第一部分:主要阐述了行动研究的背景和意义。第二部分:主要阐述了本行动研究所涉及的文献。本论文所涉及的理论有Halliday&Hason(1976)的语篇衔接连贯理论,James R. Nattinger&Jeanette S. DeCarrico (1992)在其《词汇短语与语言教学》一书中提出的词块理论,Dekeyser(2007)在其Practice in a Second Language一书中重申的练习效应理论等。第三部分:界定本行动研究的问题:(1)山功能词块组构的阅读课文的教学能否激发学生利用功能词块迅速理解语篇、加工语篇的意识和积累词块的意识?(2)由功能词块组构的阅读课文的教学能否对学生的写作连贯性有积极的影响?实施行动研究:在实验中,笔者根据学生对行动研究方案的反应适时做出_调整修改。整个过程中笔者以词块为主线,单元课文为蓝本,引导学生如何从词汇手段中寻找作者的思路,把握作者思路的变化,迅速理解课文的整体篇章结构和内容旨在培养利用功能词块迅速理解语篇、加工语篇的意和积累词块的意识。之后通过一系列活动学习、内化、吸收词块。在实验的第二阶段,把词块教学贯穿于“过程写作”的各个环节中以求在语言的输入与输出间架起词块这座桥梁,探索出一条能有效提高学生生写作质量的新路子第四部分:本研究用人工统计和百分比计算方法进行数据分析。得出以下结论:1)通过问卷调查前后测对比,本行动研究方案中的教学模式能有效培养学生利用功能词块迅速理解语篇、加工语篇的意识和积累词块的意识。2)通过前后测作文分析对比,学生的误用、漏用、错用功能词块的现象逐渐减少,正确使用现象逐渐增多。与话题内容有关的词块数量也在逐渐增多。根据Miller(1956)的理论,原本是多个的信息量可以组块化(chunking)成为一条信息,使工作记忆能处理的信息总量增加。工作记忆中能处理的信息量越多,文章的复杂度(McCutchen Perfetti1982)和连贯性(Bereite&Scardamalia1987)就越能提升。第五部分:讨论研究的启示。本文最后建议:1)连贯性不仅存在于书面语中,还存在于语中。所以可以利用词块的宏观和微观组织功能研究口语中的连贯性。2)本文中的教学模式是作者基于文献综述中的理论设计的,教学策略恰当与否,是否值得推广有待各位专家和同行讨论、批评、指正。3)为确保实验的信度和效果,前后测作文用同种体裁、同种话题的作文可能会更好。

【Abstract】 Discourse is to transfer text messages. The key to understanding discourse lies in how to separate the author’s messages from the textural organization. Therefore, from a macro perspective, readers need to seek for the author’s ideas and the changes of the ideas with the help of lexical devices which are called discourse markers. Usually different themes and genres of articles possess different organizational forms that help accelerate discourse comprehension as well as speed up discourse processing. These two functions complement each other. Taking written discourse as an example, we may find grasping and memorizing more lexical phrases can reduce the efforts in word choices because these lexical phrases together with some discourse markers can build the discourse frame. So getting familiar with the meanings, forms and functions of the phrases can not only speed up discourse comprehension but also contribute to the coherence of discourse both in terms of content and structure while discourse is being processed. This study is aimed at cultivating the students’awareness of comprehending and constructing discourses organized by the functional phrases, and improving the students’writing coherence. It hopes to provide an effective approach to enhance writing ability.The main body of the paper is divided into five chapters.Chapter One aims to provide a clear introduction to the background and significance of the action research.Chapter Two intends to lend theoretical supports. The relative theories are:1) discourse analysis theory2) lexical approach3) practice effects, etc.Chapter Three first identifies the research questions:1) Can teaching reading texts organized by functional phrases cultivate students’awareness of accumulating lexical phrases and their awareness of comprehending and constructing discourses with the functional phrases?2) Will teaching reading texts organized by functional phrases have a positive effect on improving senior high school students’composition coherence? Then an action plan is implemented. In this research, in order to explore a new method of improving students’ writing quality through the bridge of "lexical phrases" between language input and output, the researcher adopts teaching of lexical phrases into discourse comprehension while guiding the learners to have quick comprehension of the texts and then assist the learners to learn, internalize and intake the lexical phrases through a series of exercises so that they can be applied in writing.Chapter Four presents the research results and discussions through manual statistical instrument and percentage calculation. The following results can be achieved:1) The statistics of pre-test and post-test questionnaires evidently prove that the teaching model can effectively cultivate students’ awareness of accumulating lexical phrases and their awareness of comprehending and constructing discourses with the functional phrases.2) The statistic of pre-test and post-test compositions proves that the frequency of misuse, overuse and underuse of functional phrases has been reduced and the frequency of correct use has increased. Moreover, the students tend to use more topic-related phrases. According to Miller (1956), chunking quantities of information into one message can increase the amount of information that working memory need to handle. The more information working memory can handle, the more complex (McCutchen Perfetti1982) and coherent (Bereite&Scardamalia1987) the articles will be. Therefore, the teaching model has a positive effect on improving senior high school students’ composition coherence.Chapter five offers some suggestions based on the findings. Firstly, better strategies of how to effectively help students input and consolidate various lexical phrases need to be studied and discussed. Finally, to better test the students’ lexical phrases application in their compositions, teachers may choose compositions of the same genre or the same topic in pre-test and post-test.

【关键词】 语篇词块衔接意识
【Key words】 discourselexical phrasescoherenceawareness

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 首都师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.41
  • 【下载频次】30
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