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敦煌写本性友晋书仪所见丧仪初探

【作者】 陈超

【导师】 刘屹;

【作者基本信息】 首都师范大学, 历史文献学, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 敦煌出土的各类写本有着极高的历史价值,书仪因其特殊的写作格式有着特殊的价值,其中以综合类书仪即吉凶书仪的价值更高。本文主要针对敦煌写本中的杜氏书仪进行研究,在前人研究的基础之上,对一直以来被认为是杜友晋撰写的《吉凶书仪》、《新定书仪镜》和《书仪镜》做进一步的分析。通过将《书仪镜》和其他两种书仪中相同的篇目内容进行比较后发现,在单复书的运用上《书仪镜》存在着很大的不同,由此可以认定由S.329和S.361缀合得来的《书仪镜》并不是杜友晋亲自撰写的,应该是后人根据杜友晋撰写的书仪进行删改后得到的。这对以后运用杜氏书仪上有一定的帮助。在理清了杜氏书仪之间的关系之后,本文针对《新定书仪镜》做了进一步的研究。杜氏书仪从整体上来看是内外族及四海往来吊答书仪和告哀书的范本,并没有涉及具体丧仪的内容。但是《新定书仪镜》中记录的数篇祭文,能从侧面反映出当时丧礼的具体仪节。本文就对这些祭文进行了分析,与《开元礼》规定的唐代丧仪进行了对比。得出了结论,杜友晋在编写书仪时,对《开元礼》中的礼仪进行了很大程度上的借鉴,采其精华,去其糟粕。除了对当时礼法的吸收,对古礼也有一定程度的借鉴,其中的“四时祭文”就是对《仪礼》中关于“四时祭”的借鉴。在此基础上对民间流行的丧俗也予以了采纳,例如冥婚这一形式在古礼中是没有的。通过对这些祭文的分析,能够更加全面地了解到唐代丧仪的具体形式。本文最后将杜氏书仪与张敖书仪进行对比,看出张敖书仪是在唐代各家书仪的基础之上,“采其的要”编撰而成。对杜氏书仪进行了很大程度的改变,体现了张敖书仪的时代和地方特点。

【Abstract】 Various types of writing in Dunhuang has a high historical value.Shuyi has a special value because of their special format of writing, especially the Good and bad Shuyi. This article mainly research the Shuyi of Du Youjin in Dunhuang manuscripts. Basis on the previous studies, I will do further analysis on three kinds of Shuyi which have been to be believed that is written by Du Youjin,"Good and Bad books Shuyi""Shuyi Mirror" and "The New Set Shuyi Mirror"."Shuyi mirror" and the other two are different in the use of single and complex instrument, which can be identified "Shuyi Mirror"is not written by Du Youjin.It should be written by someone else,and which is very useful.Sort out the relationship between the Du’s Shuyi,I do further research about "The New Set Shuyi Mirror". Totally speaking,the Du’s Shuyi is all about family and family-in-law.It does not involve a funeral ceremony. But there are several laments in "The New Set Shuyi Mirror" can reflect the funeral ceremony.This article compare these laments and "The Kaiyuan Ceremony". Then I got a conclusion that when Du Youjin wrote the shuyi, he did not only use "The Kaiyuan Ceremony" for reference, but also make some change.Ecept absorbing the official ceremony, he also use the ancient ceremony for reference, such as "Four Season Lament". He also absorb the customs, for example, ghost marriage, this form is forbidden in the ancient ceremony. By the analysis of these lament, we can understand more fully about the Tang Dynasty funeral.Finally, I compare the Du’s Shuyi and Zhang Ao’s shuyi. I find that Zhang Ao’s shuyi is written on the basis of the various shuyi of the Tang Dynasty shuyi. Zhang Ao has done lots of change about The Du’s Shuyi which reflects the times and the local characteristics of Zhang Ao’s shuyi.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 首都师范大学
  • 【分类号】K870.6;K892.22
  • 【下载频次】34
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