【作者基本信息】 首都师范大学， 发展与教育心理学， 2017， 硕士
【摘要】 对于评价和创造性之间的关系,目前研究并没有得到一致的结论。除评价自身的复杂性之外,还有一些变量会对评价和创造性之间的关系产生影响。目前心理学研究多集中于探讨影响这一关系的中间机制。已有研究表明,特质焦虑、改善期望、自尊等会对评价和创造性之间的关系起调节作用。基于已有研究,本研究将引入调节聚焦变量,继续考察评价、调节聚焦和创造性三者之间的关系。具体分为以下两项研究： 第一项研究考察的是外部评价、调节聚焦对于创造性的影响,被试来自首都师范大学的220名大学生,通过指导语对外部评价进行操作,使用迷宫任务诱发被试的情境调节聚焦,特质调节聚焦的测量使用的是调节聚焦量表RFS,创造性任务使用的是托兰斯创造性思维测验(TTCT)中的空罐子任务。对所得数据进行相关分析、方差分析以及协方差分析,结果发现,(1)防御聚焦与流畅性、变通性及创造性总分之间呈显著负相关,促进聚焦与创造性各指标相关不显著；(2)外部评价在创造性上的主效应显著,高外部评价的被试在创造性总分及各指标上要显著高于低外部评价被试；(3)情境调节聚焦对于创造性的部分指标存在影响,体现在独创性和创造性总分上。促进聚焦条件下个体的独创性和总体创造性要高于防御聚焦；(4)特质防御聚焦在流畅性、变通性和创造性总分上主效应显著,高防御个体在流畅性、变通性和总体创造性上均低于低防御个体。 第二项研究考察的是内部评价、调节聚焦对于创造性的影响。被试来自北京市第十七中学的226名高一学生,内部评价通过指导语进行控制,调节聚焦的测量及创造性任务同研究一。对所得数据进行方差分析,结果表明,(5)内部评价和调节聚焦在对创造性的影响上存在交互作用,主要体现在防御聚焦维度。对于低防御聚焦个体,高内部评价下个体创造性要显著低于低内部评价条件,而对于高防御聚焦被试,内部评价的不同水平对个体创造性不会产生显著影响；(6)内部评价在创造性上的主效应显著,高内部评价条件下个体的流畅性、独创性都显著低于低内部评价下的个体。 总之,研究结果部分证明了本文提出的假设,评价对创造性的影响会受到调节聚焦的调节,但是这种效应只发生于内部评价,且只在防御聚焦维度上有所体现。
【Abstract】 With regard to the relationship between evaluation and creativity, current study did not reach agreement. Because of the complexity of evaluation, coupled with some variables that will impact the relationship between evaluation and creativity, make this problem more complicated. Some research are focused on exploring the intermediate mechanism that affect this relationship, relevant research has showed that trait anxiety, expectation to improve and self-esteem moderate this relationship. On the basis of existing research, regulatory focus will be introduced in our study to examine the effects of evaluation and regulatory focus on creativity. Specifically, it includes the following two studies.The first study aims to examine the effects of external evaluation and regulatory focus on creativity. Subjects are220college students from the Capital Normal University. In the experiment, external evaluation is operated through instructions; situational regulatory focus is induced by a maze task; trait regulatory focus is measured by regulatory focus scale (RFS); creativity task we use is empty cans in Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Correlation analysis has shown that there was a significant negative correlation between prevention focus and fluency, flexibility and creativity total score; the correlation coefficient between promotion focus and creative indicators is not significant. Analysis of variance and covariance analysis have shown that main effect of external evaluation on creativity is significant, subjects under high external evaluation situation had higher creativity scores than low situation. The effect of situational regulatory focus on creativity is significant, subject under promotion focus situation had higher originality and creative total score than prevention focus. The effect of trait prevention focus on creativity is significant, subjects with lower prevention focus had higher fluency, flexibility and creative title score than subjects with higher prevention focus.The second study aims to examine the effects of internal evaluation and regulatory focus on creativity. Subjects are226students that come from Beijing17th middle school. In the experiment, internal evaluation is operated through instructions; trait regulatory focus is measured by regulatory focus scale (RFS); creativity tasks we use is empty cans. Analysis of variance has shown that there was a significant interaction of internal evaluation and regulatory focus, mainly reflecting on prevention focus. For low prevention focus subjects, under low internal evaluation situation, they had higher creativity scores than those under high internal evaluation situation. For high prevention focus subjects, there was no significant effects as for different levels of internal evaluation. What is more, the main effect of internal evaluation is significant, under low internal evaluation situation, the subjects had higher fluency score and originality score than those under high internal evaluation situation.
【Key words】 external evaluation； internal evaluation； regulatory focus； creativity；
- 【网络出版投稿人】 首都师范大学