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“课堂观察”与传统的听评课的对比研究

【作者】 陈晓宇

【导师】 王尚志;

【作者基本信息】 首都师范大学, 学科教学, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 听评课是一种最直接、最有效的研究提高课堂教学质量的方法和手段;有效的听评课能为课堂研究、教育教学研究提供最真实的第一手资料,并成为其最有效的起点。基于课程改革和教师专业发展的需求,现阶段我国对听评课的研究蓬勃发展。近几年发展起来的“课堂观察”是课堂研究广泛使用的一种方法,但在许多教师眼里,“课堂观察”只是常见听评课的一个翻版。但作为教师日常工作的听评课为何没有为教师的专业发展提供有力的支撑,因为传统的听评课很少能过提供支撑教师专业发展的有力元素,而“课堂观察”具有强大的促进教师专业发展的潜力,因为“课堂观察”是一种技术,指向课堂问题的发现和解决。基于教师向“研究者”发展的趋势,基于“国培计划”的实际背景,本文试图对传统的听评课方法和“课堂观察”的技术作对比研究,得出“课堂观察”较传统的听评课存在的优势与局限,希望为是否应该在中小学教师中普及“课堂观察”的技术提供参考。本研究包括以下内容;第1章研究问题及方法——阐述本论文的研究缘起,研究问题,听评课与“课堂观察”的相关概念界定,研究意义及研究方法。第2章文献综述——听评课与“课堂观察”的国内外研究成果综述;包括听评课的内涵,听评课关注的要素,评课的原则及方法;“课堂观察”的发展历史,“课堂观察”的概念、特点和类别,“课堂观察”的基本步骤,“课堂观察”的重要作用等。第3章研究过程分析——本部分是论文的主要内容,包括“课堂观察”案例分析和访谈调查。笔者在“国培计划(2011)”——中小学骨干教师研修项目首都师范大学高中数学班选取了两个“课堂观察”实例,H中学教师A的《曲线与方程》和Y中学教师B的《幂函数》,案例中的教师严格按照“课堂观察”的三个步骤通过聚焦式观察、结构式观察等多种“课堂观察”方法对这堂课进行了观察和评价,同时也应用了传统的听评课方法对课堂作评价。最后,笔者对案例作总结分析,并应用访谈的方法对案例中的22位教师做调查研究,最后整理出教师眼中“课堂观察”较传统的听评课存在的优势与局限。第4章结论、建议与展望。通过笔者的调查研究发现“课堂观察”较传统的听评课存在很多优势:“课堂观察”在教学实践和教学理论之间架起一座桥梁,能有效促进教师的专业发展,同时“课堂观察”能够促进教师间的合作,对课堂的评价也更为客观。但是“课堂观察”也存在很多局限:“课堂观察”善于分析与诊断课堂行为的局部,不能宏观的把握课堂;“课堂观察”只能观察直观现象与行为,不能观察看不见摸不着的内在机理;“课堂观察”对参与观察的教师的专业知能与自身特质方面有较高要求;“课堂观察”需要一定的时间、设备与技术的保障。正因为教师参与“课堂观察”受到这些因素的限制,“课堂观察”不能取代传统的听评课。但笔者认为“课堂观察”的技术还是值得在职教师、特别是中小学教师学习掌握的,有必要在中小学校教师中普及“课堂观察”的技术,以促进学生、教师和学校的发展。即使教师们没有条件没有精力进行系统的“课堂观察”,“课堂观察”技术的学习也能促进教师们的专业发展,“课堂观察”技术的学习对于中小学在职教师不仅是掌握一门技术,更重要的是一种教育理念的提升。

【Abstract】 Observation and commentary on the class is one of the most direct and most effective ways and means to improve the quality of classroom teaching; effective classroom observation and comment provides the most realistic first-hand information for classroom research and education research. Nowadays, in the background of implementing the new curriculum and professional development of teachers, the research about observation and commentary on the class is booming in our country,"classroom observation", as a method widely used of classroom study, developed in recent years, but it just was a replica of common observation and commentary on the class in the eyes of many teachers. But observation and commentary on the class in the daily work of teachers did not provide strong support for teachers’ professional development, this is because that traditional observation and commentary on the class rarely provides a strong clement of support teachers’ professional development, while "classroom observation" has the strong potential to promote professional development of teachers."Classroom observation", as a technique, points to identify and solution of the classroom problems.Based on the development trend of teachers to the "researchers" and the actual background of the "National training program (2011)", this paper attempted to contrast the traditional observation and commentary on the class and "classroom observation". Author sorted out advantages and shortcomings of "classroom observation" compared to traditional observation and commentary on the class in the last. Author hope that this study can provide reference for that the primary and secondary teachers learn the technology of the "classroom observation" generally. This paper includes the following:Chapter1:Research questions and methods——The section explained the origin of my research, research questions, definition of observation and commentary on the class and "classroom observation", meaning and method of the research.Chapter2:Literature Review——Summary of the research results of observation and commentary on the class and "classroom observation" at home and abroad; It include the connotation of observation and commentary on the class, the elements concerned with observation and commentary on the class, the principles and methods of commentary on the class; the history of the development of the "classroom observation", the concepts, characteristics and categories of the "classroom observation", the basic steps of the "classroom observation", the important role of the "classroom observation", and so on.Chapter3:Analysis of the research process——The section includes cases studies on "classroom observation" and interview survey. Author selected two cases of classroom study which comes from the high school math classes of Capital Normal University of "National training program (2011)"--training program of key teachers of primary and secondary schools, it was "curve with the equation" of a teacher named A of the H Middle School and "power function " of a teacher named B of the Y Middle School. The teachers in the cases observed and evaluated classes by a variety of "classroom observation" methods, such as focused observation, structured observation, complied with the three steps of the "classroom observation" strictly. The teachers also evaluated classes by the method of the traditional observation and commentary on the class at the same time. In the last, author summarized the cases. Author interviewed teachers in the two cases, sorted out advantages and shortcomings of "classroom observation" compared to traditional observation and commentary on the class.Chapter4:Conclusions, recommendations and prospects.Through investigation and study, author found that "classroom observation" has many advantages compared to the traditional observation and commentary on the class. Above all,"classroom observation" can effectively promote the professional development of teachers. Secondly, it is a student-centered activity. Third, it can promote cooperation among teachers. Finally, it also is a more objective evaluation of classroom."Classroom observation" also has many shortcomings. First of all, it is good at analysis and diagnosis of partial classroom behavior, but not all of classroom behavior. Secondly, it can only observe the intuitive phenomena and behavior, the internal mechanism can not be observed. Third, it has higher requirements on professional knowledge and characteristics of teachers involved in the observed. Finally, it requires time, equipment and technology to protect.Because these factors limit teachers to participate in "classroom observation","classroom observation" can not replace traditional observation and commentary on the class. However, the author believes that In-service teachers, specifically primary and secondary school teachers, worth learning "classroom observation". It is necessary that "classroom observation" method is popularized in the primary and secondary school teachers in order to promote the development of students, teachers and schools. Even if teachers do not have the condition and energy to make systematic "classroom observation", the learning the technology of "classroom observation" can also promote the professional development of teachers. The learning process of "classroom observation" is not only to master a technology, but more importantly is the enhancement of the educational concept in-service teachers for primary and secondary schools.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 首都师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.6
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