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谁是好学生 ——关于学校评优标准的社会学研究

【作者】 万作芳

【导师】 谢维和;石中英;

【作者基本信息】 北京师范大学, 教育学原理, 2013, 博士

【副题名】关于学校评优标准的社会学研究

【摘要】 教育实践和教育改革已经对既有的学生培养和评价体系提出了挑战,这促使我们关注学校教育中的好学生评价问题。论文把这个问题聚焦在对学校评优标准的研究中。学校评优标准是指学校颁布的适用于好学生评价的一套规则/规范,是通过学校传达执行的国家、社会对学生的预期,是国家、社会和学校对学生进行控制的手段,达到或接近这种预期的学生就是好学生。围绕学校评优标准进行的一系列活动能够反映出国家对人才进行选拔的机制和过程。通过对学校评优标准的制定和实践研究,有助于我们透视人才选拔的实施机制,认识人才选拔机制中存在的问题。在研究方法上,论文主要运用定性研究方法,用半结构访谈法获取资料。其次,论文也运用了历史文献法,对样本学校中与学生评价有关的资料进行收集与分析。论文在结构上分为五个部分:第一部分是绪论,主要是提出问题、界定核心概念并提出研究思路;第二部分是学校评优标准的历史变迁。在这一章中,论文以样本学校为主线对学校评优标准的历史变迁进行了梳理。论文发现,我国学校评优标准在历史变迁中呈现出两个特点,即,学校评优标准的变迁是连续的而不是断裂的;是渐进性的“变革”而不是突发性的“革命”。同时,学校评优标准的历史变迁呈现出三个趋向,分别是:从重视先赋性因素的评价向重视后致性因素的评价转变,评价对象越来越个人化;从显性的评价转变到隐性的评价,评价形式越来越隐蔽;从抽象的概括性评价转变到具体的技术性评价,评价技术越来越精细。第三部分是学校评优标准的制定。在这一章中论文首先对学校评优标准的制定过程进行了研究。通过研究发现,在学校评优标准的制定过程中,国家和观念层面的评优标准对学校评优标准的制定起“强控制性”影响,而学校内部因素只起“弱控制性”影响。这种状况的存在使学校评优标准的制定是一个自上而下的类似于行政指令传达的过程,从而导致学校评优标准的保守性和滞后性。研究发现学校在标准制定过程中处于非常被动的地位,受制度环境的制约。面对评优标准制定的强势制度环境,学校作为组织追寻的是生存的合法性而不是效率最大化。论文用制度主义理论对这一现象进行了解释。第四部分是学校评优标准的实践。论文通过对学校评优标准实践的研究发现,好学生有四个标志,成绩好、品德好、天赋早熟和“学校出身”好。拥有这些标志越多的学生越是好学生。同时好学生作为一种标记标识出国家在特定时期的注意力分配问题、学校利益和荣誉问题和学生个人的能力和“苦行”。研究同时发现学校评优标准的实践过程并不是按照文本的评优标准进行的评优活动。它实际上是评优标准的“二次制定”过程,有时甚至是对文本的评优标准的完全“颠覆”的过程。论文运用社会网络理论对这一现象进行了解释。基于以上的研究结果,论文在第五部分对学校评优标准进行了反思。论文认为学校评优标准的制定和实践之间存在疏离,并对这种疏离进行了社会学分析。从学校评优标准是一种教育选拔机制的认识出发,论文认为我们国家现有教育选拔的意识形态属于功绩主义意识形态。论文最后对人才选拔机制进行了透视并提出建议,认为应让市场和社会力量参与到标准制定中来,形成国家、市场和社会力量多主体制定评优标准的局面,建立多标准、多层次的评优标准以适应对人才的多方面需求。

【Abstract】 The practice and reform of education are challenging the system of the existentcultivation and evaluation towards students, which urges us to think about theevaluation of excellent students in our education. The article condenses this probleminto the research about the selection standard toward excellent students in school. Thisstandard is the norm that the school evaluates excellent students, by which the countryand society control the students. The series of activities, based on the standard, is oneof the measures by which the country and society singling out the talents. Byresearching the standard how to be established and how to be practiced, we couldhave some insight into the active system of choosing the talents, and the existentproblem in our choice.On the method of research, the article mainly uses the method of qualitativeresearch, getting data by “half-structure interview”. On the other hand, it also adoptsthe historical documents to make a collection and arrangement of the data concerningthe evaluation of the students in certain schools.The article has five chapters. The first chapter aims to find questions, define keywords and offer my mind line. The second chapter is about the historical changes ofthe selection standard toward excellent students in certain schools. In this chapter, thearticle focuses on the development of the selection standard, and find that theselection standard has two characters: continuous but not isolated; slowly “reform”rather than fast “revolution”. The selection standard also present in three orientations:first, from placing the importance on the factor of sponsored to the factor of contested;second, from distinct to indistinct; third, from the abstract general evaluation to theconcrete technical one.The third chapter is about the establishment of the selection standard. The articledescribes the process of the establishment of the standard, and then finds that theselection standard of country always influences that of school strongly, we call it the “strong-controlling” influence. Comparative, the inner factor of school is only the“weak-controlling” influence. This situation makes the establishment of the standardin school as a top-down process that seems executive and directive, which leads to thestandard conservative. The school is discovered to establish the standard in a ratherpassive way, confined by the systematic environment. The article explains thisphenomenon with the institutionalism theory. Confronted with such a powerfulenvironment, the school as an institutional organization, pursues its legality instead ofthe maxim efficiency.The fourth chapter is about the practice of the selection standard. By researchingthe practice of the selection standard in stationary school, we find that the goodstudents have four markings, their score is high, the moral qualities is good, thenatural endowments is precocious and they come from the famous school. Morehe(she) owns these markings, more he(she) is a good student. The good student also isused as a kind of marking showing lots of phenomena, such as the country’s attentiondistributing at particular period, school’s benefits and honor and student’s personalability and hard work. By researching we also find that the practice of the selectionstandard of school do not carry out according to the text of the selection standard.Actually the process is afresh the standard, and sometimes evenly complete" reversal" the text of standard. The thesis used the theory of social network theory to explainthe series of phenomenon.Based on the last conclusion, the article reviews the selection standard in the fifthchapter. Our research finds that the practice of the selection standard alienated fromthe text standard and tried to analyze the alienation. Because the selection standard isone of the measures by which the country and society singling out the talents, wethink that our country’s ideology about selection from students is meritocracy. At last,we suggest that the market and social strength should take part in the establishment ofthe standard. The situation should be formed that country, market and social strengthestablish the standard together in order to construct the multi-standard to supply manykind of talents.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 北京师范大学
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