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学校资源配置与学生学业成绩关系研究 ——基于西部五省区农村中小学的实证分析

【作者】 胡咏梅

【导师】 靳希斌;

【作者基本信息】 北京师范大学, 教育经济与管理, 2015, 博士

【副题名】基于西部五省区农村中小学的实证分析

【摘要】 上个世纪80年代以来,教育经费的增长成为世界趋势,各国要求提高效率的呼声越来越高。与此同时,教育的大量需求与教育供给不足的矛盾也日渐突出,解决这一矛盾,一方面可以从整个社会资源分配的角度,力争为教育争取更多的资源;另一方面就是要在资源无法明显扩大的背景下,探讨如何提高已获得的资源的使用效率。因此,教育经济学者开始转向研究教育过程,借鉴经济学中的生产函数来研究教育生产函数,以便为教育资源的效用最大化提供管理学与教育学方面的建议,对学校教育教学及管理的微观过程给予实质性的指导。论文通过对国内外关于教育资源配置与学生学业成绩关系、教育生产函数等方面的相关研究的系统整理和比较分析,总结了国内外相关研究的思路、方法以及重要的研究结论。在此基础上采用多元线性回归模型和多水平模型,构建了我国西部农村公立中小学学校资源配置与学生学业成绩关系模型,并对西部农村部分中小学资源配置效率状况进行了评估,分析影响学校资源配置效率的因素。全文共分三部分。第一部分包括第1章导论、第2章理论基础与相关实证研究以及第3章研究设计与方法。这一部分是研究的总体设计和基本支撑。具体来讲第1章主要介绍了研究背景、基本问题、研究目的和意义、研究思路、基本概念、文献综述、体系结构以及研究创新和不足。第2章一方面阐述研究的理论基础和方法论基础,包括教育资源配置理论和教育生产函数理论与计量模型;另一方面还对国内外实证研究成果进行了评析。第3章是详细的研究设计和实证研究部分所采用的计量方法介绍。第二部分包括第4、5、6章,对学校资源配置与学生学业成绩关系进行实证分析,也是论文的核心部分。第4章主要采用多元线性回归模型和两水平线性模型分别构建学校层级的资源优化配置模型和学校资源配置与学生个体成绩关系模型(小学、初中模型)。实证研究的数据来源是西部五省区农村中小学的抽样调查。第5章是采用多元线性回归模型分别构建学校人力、物力、财力资源优化配置模型。第6章是利用数据包络分析(DEA)方法对西部农村中小学学校资源配置效率状况进行评估,并探究影响学校资源配置技术效率和规模效率的因素。第三部分是第7章结论及政策建议。这一章首先对第二部分的实证研究结果进行归纳总结,然后将研究结果与国内外同类研究进行比较,最后基于实证分析结果给出相应的政策建议。本研究的贡献主要体现在研究方法和研究内容两方面。采用增量模型克服传统回归模型难以解决的学校质量潜在的内生性问题,构建学生个体的学业成绩与教育投入的回归模型。这是对国内教育生产函数方法的丰富与改进,为后续研究提供方法上的借鉴。使用DEA方法评估西部五省区农村部分中小学学校资源配置效率状况,填补了国内此方面研究空白。研究结论对西部农村中小学改善学校资源配置,提高学校教育生产效率和规模效率提供了科学合理的建议。此外,基于实证结果给出的相关政策建议为各级政府和教育行政部门制定西部农村中小学教育资源配置政策以及中小学学校领导改善资源配置状况、提高教育质量提供决策依据。

【Abstract】 Since1980s, one of the world trends is that every nation tries to increase ofeducation expenditure with the increasing attention to the education efficiency. Anincreasing paradox is the contradiction between the ever-increasing demand andinsufficiency of education supply. There are only two ways to tackle the problem. Oneway is to adjust the social resource distribution in order to secure more resource foreducation, the other is how to make the education input more efficient within contextof less possibility of getting more money. Thus, experts in the field of educationaleconomics have turned their attention to education process. They study the educationproduction function with the theory of production function of economics, so as toprovide advice on the maximum of education efficiency.This dissertation systematically explores all the researches in such fields aseducation resource allocation and students attainment, resource allocation and theproduction function and tries hard to sum up the existing research methodologies aswell as findings. Then, the author makes efforts to establish relation model betweenresource allocation for schools in western China and student attainment with theadoption of multiple linear regression and multi-level analysis model. In addition, theauthor makes evaluation of the resource allocation efficiency, and makes analysis intopossible factors positively related to the resource allocation efficiency.The dissertation is composed of three parts. Part one includes first three chapters.Chapter one includes the background, basic issues, purposes, literature review,defining of the key words, methodology as well as the general framework of theresearch. Chapter two is composed of foundation theories and literature analysis.Chapter three introduces the detailed framework and the quantitative methodsappearing empirical research.Part two is composed of chapter four, chapter five and chapter six. It is in thispart that the author displays the empirical research on the relationship between schoolresources allocation and students attainment. Chapter four makes the sample investigation from five provinces in western China, makes use of multiple linearregression and multi-level models, designs two models of optimization of resourceallocation and relationship model of school resources allocation and individualstudent attainment. Chapter five is the model designing of single type resourceallocation such as human resource, material resource and financial resource. Chaptersix evaluates the effectiveness of school resources allocation in western and ruralregions with the tool of DEA (data envelopment analysis) model, and explores factorsinfluencing school resources allocation technical and scale efficiencies.Part three provides conclusions and policy suggestions. The author focus threespoints of generalizing the empirical findings, comparison of the findings betweendomestic and foreign research of the same kind and provision of the policysuggestions.The dissertation makes use of value-added model to formulate a regressionmodel of individual student attainment and the education input so as to solve someendogenetic problem of education quality, and avoid the shortcoming of traditionalregression model. This research will enrich domestic studies in education productionfunction and takes the lead in the research of this area. The author provides reasonableand scientific suggestions for rural schools to improve resource allocation andincrease education production efficiency and scale efficiency. Lastly, the empiricalresearch findings and the related policy suggestions could be some theoretical base forgovernments at different levels to make policies related to resources placement,school resources allocation and education quality, etc.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 北京师范大学
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