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课程视域下的作业设计研究

【作者】 王月芬

【导师】 崔允漷;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 长期以来,作业一直是教育领域的核心话题之一。作业是教师依据一定的目的而设计,并要求学生利用非教学时间完成的学习任务。作业不仅是学校教育的“名片”,而且作业也往往会成为学生是否喜欢一门学科,是否喜欢一位老师的重要条件。近年来,学生的作业问题饱受质疑。作业是教师实践得最多却研究得较少的领域之一。作业应有的价值毋庸置疑。作业设计质量、作业实施效果等都应成为衡量课程改革成效的重要指标。作业设计质量是决定作业实施效果的关键所在,提升作业设计的质量,不仅需要准确地把握和了解作业设计现状中存在的问题,而且需要有科学的作业理论作为指导,更加需要有效的作业设计方法来提供专业保障。本研究以解决作业设计中的“真实问题”为研究的出发点,主要围绕“如何在课程视域下设计作业”这一核心问题逐步展开论述。本论文着重研究了与课程视域下作业设计相关的五个基本问题:一是当下作业设计中存在的真实问题究竟是什么?二是作业设计思想的历史发展脉络究竟是什么?三是如何基于作业真实问题和作业设计思想的历史发展脉络,建构并形成课程视域下的作业设计观?四是课程视域作业设计观下有哪些基本的作业设计策略与方法?五是课程视域下作业设计策略如何“可视化”,从而更好地指导教师进行作业设计?第一章着重分析了作业的内涵、价值与国内外研究现状。在此基础上提出作业设计问题是目前作业研究领域迫切需要解决的关键问题,也是深化课程改革、减轻学生过重课业负担的迫切需要解决的首要问题。第二章主要论述了作业设计存在的真实问题。2013年通过对上海市60所学校学生真实的作业文本分析,以及对30000多个教师、学生和家长的问卷调查,研究结果显示现行作业设计整体表现出“经验比研究多”、“问题比优点多”的基本特征。首先,作业设计质量不佳是导致作业实施效果不理想的关键原因,作业设计质量不高导致学生作业兴趣不高,作业负担过重,对提高学业成绩的效果也不明显;其次,作业设计质量普遍不理想,主要表现在作业功能定位、作业目标、作业时间、作业难度、作业类型、作业差异性、作业的结构性等各个方面;再次,作业设计质量不高的原因主要来自于作业设计理论的欠缺,作业设计策略方法的匮乏,以及教师作业设计能力差强人意等方面。本章从现作业设计真实问题角度阐明了课程视域作业设计观符合现实诉求。第三章着重论述了作业设计观的历史发展脉络。通过文献研究的方法,梳理了国内外十多位著名专家对于作业设计的相关思想,尝试归纳出四种典型的作业思想,即“作业即游戏活动”、“作业即教学巩固”、“作业即学习活动”、“作业即评价任务”。本章从历史发展脉络的角度,进一步说明课程视域下的作业设计符合历史发展趋势。第四章尝试建构并形成了课程视域下的作业设计观。通过对历史上不同作业设计观中课程、教学、作业三者之间的关系分析,提出课程视域下的作业设计观的基本特征与基本理念,论述了课程视域下的作业设计观不仅符合作业设计的现实诉求,而且也符合历史发展趋势。通过比较课程视域下作业设计和教学视域下作业设计的异同,本研究认为课程视域下的作业设计,更加强调的是一种科学的作业设计范式,强调作业设计中的“目标导向”、“整体设计”、“反馈改进”和“尊重差异”等基本理念。第五章着重阐述了课程视域下作业设计的基本策略。结合课程视域下作业设计观的基本理念,提出课程视域下作业设计的六大基本策略:一是基于课程目标整体设计作业目标;二是作业内容与作业目标保持一致性;三是作业各关键要素具有内在结构性;四是作业内容要求需体现纵横系统性;五是依据学生作业结果反思完善作业设计;六是关注个性学习的差异性作业设计。第六章主要阐述如何将课程视域下作业设计策略“可视化”,以提高教师的作业设计能力。课程视域下作业设计策略“可视化”强调作业设计要从“宏观理念—中观流程与工具-微观问题”相结合进行系统思考,主要通过作业设计前的“设计流程图”、作业设计中的“思维过程记录表”和作业设计后的“反思评价表”来共同保障作业设计的质量。

【Abstract】 For a long period of time, homework has been one of the core topics of education. Homework is the task designed on the basis of certain purposes by teachers which requires students to complete during non-instructional hours. Homework is not only education’s "business card" to the society, but also an important condition under which students will foster their preferences to both the courses and the teachers. In recent years, the students’ homework got lots of arguments from the society. It is one of the areas in which there are more practice but less research.There’s no doubt about the value of homework. The quality of homework design, and the effect of homework operation should be seemed as critical indicators of the success of curriculum reform. And between them, the quality of homework design is more important as it is the key to the operation effect. To improve the quality of homework design, we should locate the problems existing in the current situation, develop a theoretical guidance, and work on valid ways for designing homework.Present study focuses on the "authentic problems" of homework design, and is unfolded around the core issue "How to Design Homework with A Curriculum Perspective". It contains five basic questions:(a) What are the authentic problems in current homework designs? (b) Where, according to the historical background, did the thoughts about homework design come from and what is the trend about homework design theory? (c) How to design homework with a curriculum perspective based on its authentic problems and historical background? (d) What are the basic strategies and methods to design homework with a curriculum perspective? (e) How to "visualize" those strategies and methods as to offer teachers supports to design homework with a curriculum perspective?In present study, Chapter 1 focuses on the discussion of homework’s definition, values and research backgrounds. Based on such work, it further points out that homework design is one of the most urgent problems in the field, and is also critical to both the enforcement of curriculum reform, and the alleviation of students’ academic burden.Chapter 2 discusses the authentic problems in homework design. In year 2013, through analyzed homework documents of 60 schools, and surveyed over 30,000 students, teachers and parents. The result of this study showed that there were "more experienced thoughts but less empirical studies" and "more problems but less profits". Firstly,low quality of homework design was an important cause to the poor implementation of homework. And due to the low quality, students were less motivated, heavily burdened, and lack of obvious progress in their academic performance. Secondly, quality of most homework design didn’t reach the expectation. Most design flaws were found in homework’s function positioning, objective setting, time taking, difficulty, types, differentiation, and structure etc. Thirdly, several key causes to the low quality of homework including the lack of reasonable theory, short of effective strategies, and teachers’ unsatisfied professional competence etc. Chapter2 clarifies the urgency of "Design Homework with A Curriculum Perspective" from the practical demands.Chapter 3 reviews the research background of homework design theory. By analyzing some famous experts’ opinions toward homework design, this chapter summed up four typical perspectives about homework design, and they are "homework as games"," homework as teaching consolidation", "homework as learning activities", and "homework as evaluation tasks". On the basis of these four perspectives about homework design, it further explains "Design Homework with A Curriculum Perspective" from a historical view.Chapter 4 constructs the theory about "Design Homework with A Curriculum Perspective". By elaborating the relations among curriculum, instruction and homework, it distinguishes the differences between "Design Homework with A Curriculum Perspective" and "Design Homework with A Instruction Perspective", it points out that "Design Homework with A Curriculum Perspective" represents a scientific homework design paradigm which has more emphasis on "goal orientation","systematical design", "feedbacks as well as improvements" and "respect for differences" etc.Chapter 5 discusses six strategies of designing homework with a curriculum perspective including:(a) designing homework objectives on the basis of curriculum goals; (b) keeping the consistency between homework content and objectives; (c) organizing key elements of homework into an intrinsic structure; (d) making vertical and horizontal connections between the contents and requirements of homework; (e) improving the homework design with the reflections of students’ performances;(f) designing personalized homework.Chapter 6 mainly elaborates how to "visualize" the strategies of designing homework with a curriculum perspective as to improve teachers’ competence to design homework. Visualization of homework design strategies emphasizes on a thinking path from macro concepts to medium process and tools and then to microcosmic problems. Visualization of the homework design strategies include three associated phases:the "flow chart of design" in the pre-design phase; the "form of thinking process" in the design phase; and the "sheet of evaluation and reflection" in the post-design phase. Together the three phases can guarantee the quality of homework design.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G424
  • 【下载频次】1719
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