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基于观念结构分析的中国初中语文教科书批评语言学研究

【作者】 章家谊

【导师】 胡范铸;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 语言学及应用语言学, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 本文是一项基于观念结构分析的,关于中国初中语文教科书的批评语言学研究。母语教育是应用语言学研究最重要的任务之一,语文教科书则是母语教育最重要的媒介。然而,我国目前对语文教科书的研究在很大程度上还停留在经验层面,即使是学术层面的研究,也多是在学科教育学框架下开展,很少引起语言学界的关注。语文教科书可以说是人类言语行为的一种,“分析任何言语行为都应当从这一行为的本质入手”(胡范铸)。而要有效地认识语文教科书的本质,就必须理解“语文”的本质。传统语文教育理论一直纠缠于语文的性质问题,其中“工具性”和“人文性”的统一说最为流行。那么,到底如何正确认识语文/母语的性质?如何正确认识语文教育即母语教育的行为本质?母语教育是否只是一个学科的教学行为?甚至只是一个语言知识的教学行为?如果不是,那么,应该如何重构母语教育?我们认为,语言不但是人类最基本的交际工具,更是人类认知世界的基本方式,而语文教科书不仅是语言和文化知识的样本,“不仅仅是‘事实’的‘传输系统’,它还是经济、政治、文化活动、斗争及相互妥协等共同作用的结果。”(阿普尔等);而语文教科书提供的知识类型、呈现的认知水平、构建的意识形态更是对于未来社会人群的一种塑造方案,是“关于未来的一个预言”(阿普尔等)。由此,我们不得不思考这样的问题:在汉语语言知识和语言能力获得以外,——我们的语文教科书为学习者提供了一个怎样的知识类型,这一知识类型是否均衡?是否存在缺失?——我们的语文教科书为学习者呈现了一个怎样的认知水平,这—认知水平是否有助于独立思考能力的培养?——我们的语文教科书为学习者构建了—个怎样的意识形态,这一意识形态与现代社会的发展是否一致?——在对于上述一系列问题有效分析的基础上,我们能否提出一套新的语文教科书的编写建议和规则?由此,本文选取中国大陆和香港、台湾的四种版本的初中阶段语文教科书,以书中所含所有名词为分析比较对象,综合运用依据观念结构理论、批评语言学理论、言语行为理论、教科书政治学理论、预设理论等相关理论,针对上述四版本语文教科书的知识类型、认知水平、意识形态等方面展开论述,从而考察当今的语文教科书的编写是否符合语文教科书的行为本质,并就此对于语文教科书的编写原则提出我们的批评和建议。本文共分为七章,主要内容如下:第一章综述语文教科书研究的现状与问题,并介绍本文研究思路,据此提出在语文教科书研究方面前人未涉及而本文需要讨论的问题。第二章论述语文教科书行为的本质。语文是人的存在方式,因而语文教育的行为本质就是人的存在方式的教育,是人的存在性教育,必然要求语文教育应该让学生知道语言本身的各种可能性,以显示社会生活的各种可能性。因此,语文教科书,作为传达语文教育行为本质理念的载体和主要途径,其行为本质和本质功能必然是提供语言本身的各种可能性,以显示社会生活的各种可能性。本章还介绍了本文选取的分析对象——四版本中国初中语文教科书的原因和其所含全部名词概貌。第三章——第五章以四版本中国初中语文教科书中的所有名词为对象,进行语文教科书的知识类型分析、认知水平分析和意识形态分析。其中,第三章是语文教科书知识类型分析。基于“现行大学学科分类基本合理有效”和“母语既构成学习人类全部知识的必须,也开启学习人类全部知识的可能”的假设,通过对于语文教科书名词所反映的观念和观念结构与大学现行学科分类的对比,努力客观描写初中语文教科书知识类型结构。并进而对各种版本教科书的知识类型分析比较,得出四版本初中语文教科书虽然总体上均具有比较完整的大的知识类型框架,但是深入到具体的知识类型却可以发现,其中依然存在观念结构之间不均衡、知识类型缺失等问题。第四章是语文教科书认知水平分析。语文教科书认知水平分析可以从很多角度加以研究,本文主要讨论“认知强化功能”、“深度思维功能”及“多元思维观功能”。通过分析比较,认为初中语文教科书存在认知强化功能弱化、深度思维能力弱化、多元思维观能力弱化的问题,并提出其主要原因源于语文教科书编写存在的最大弊病——“角色预设偏误”。第五章是语文教科书意识形态分析。在回顾教科书意识形态研究的现状与存在问题的基础上,指出最能体现语文教科书意识形态的名词还是与人有关的名词,因此本文通过对四版本所含的人物类名词本身属性隐涵的意识形态的分析来考察初中语文教科书的意识形态倾向,揭示了教科书存在的“意识形态简单化”、“意识形态刻板化”的问题。第六章是教科书“叙说”(编写)行为的规则分析。结合对四版本初中语文教科书所含全部名词的分析结论,提出针对四版本语文教科书的编写建议。并在此基础上,进一步讨论了“语文教科书编写言语行为”的“构成性规则”和“策略性规则”。第七章为结语,总结全文的主要内容和观点、创新之处和不足之处以及后续的研究展望。总之,希望通过本文的研究,能为中国语文教科书的分析提供一个新的视角,为语文教科书的编写提供切实的意见,为语文教科书的语言学视角研究作出自己的一份努力。

【Abstract】 This paper is a critical linguistics study of junior middle school Chinese textbook based on the concept structure analysis.Native language education is one of the most important tasks of applied linguistics research, and Chinese textbook is the most important medium of native language education. However, the study on Chinese textbook in our country is still at the experience level largely at present, even the study at the academic level is also carried out in the education framework, rarely causing attention of linguistics.Chinese textbook is a kind of human speech behavior, "any analysis of speech behavior should start from the nature of this behavior" (Hu Fanzhu). In order to effectively realize the essence of Chinese textbook, we must understand the nature of the "language". Traditional Chinese education theory has focused on the nature of Chinese, and the unity of "instrumental" and "humanism" is the most popular. So how do we correctly understand the nature of the language/native language? How to correctly understand the behavior nature of Chinese education, namely the native language education? Is the native language education just the teaching activity of a subject? Even just a teaching activity of language knowledge? If not, how do we reconstruct the native language education?We believe that language is not only the most basic human communication tool, but also the basic ways of realizing the world, and Chinese textbook is not only the samples of language and cultural knowledge, "not just the transmission system of ’facts’, but also the result of economy, politics, cultural activities, struggle and compromise" (Apple et al); the types of knowledge, the cognitive level and ideology provided by Chinese textbook are the shaping plan for the people in the future society, and is "a prediction of the future" (Apple et al).As a result, we have to think about such questions:besides obtaining the Chinese language knowledge and language ability,-What kind of knowledge does the Chinese textbook provide for the learners, is the knowledge type balanced? Whether there is any missing?-What kind of cognitive level does the Chinese textbook provide for the learners, and does the cognitive level contribute to the developing of independent thinking?-What kind of ideology does the Chinese textbook provide for the learners, and is the ideology consistent with the development of modern society?-On the basis of analyzing the above problems effectively, can we put forward a new set of writing suggestions and rules for Chinese textbook?As a result, this paper selects four versions of the junior middle school Chinese textbook in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, takes all the nouns in the textbook as the object of comparative analysis, comprehensively uses the concept structure theory, critical linguistics theory, speech behavior theory, textbook political theory and presupposition theory, discusses the types of knowledge, cognitive level, ideology and other aspects of the above four versions of Chinese textbook, and studies whether the Chinese textbook is in line with the behavior nature of Chinese textbook, and puts forward our criticisms and suggestions of writing principles of Chinese textbook.This paper is divided into seven chapters, and the main content is as follows:Chapter one reviews the present situation and problems of the research on Chinese textbook, introduces the research idea, and explains the problems in Chinese textbook research that has not been discussed yet.Chapter two discusses the behavior nature of Chinese textbook. It discusses that the essential characteristics of Chinese is the human existence, thus the behavior essence of the Chinese education is the education of human existence, the education of human being, so it is necessary for the Chinese education to let students know the possibilities of the language itself to show the possibilities of social life. Therefore, as the carrier and main way of conveying the behavior essence of Chinese education, the behavior nature and nature function of Chinese textbook must provide the possibilities of the language itself to show the possibilities of social life. And it also introduces the analytic target-the reason of selecting four versions of junior middle school Chinese textbook and the general picture of its all nouns.The third to fifth chapters analyze the types of knowledge, cognitive level and ideology of Chinese textbook, taking all the nouns in four versions of the junior middle school Chinese textbook as the object.Among them, chapter three is the analysis about knowledge types of Chinese textbook. Based on the assumption of "current university subject classification is reasonable and effective" and "native language not only consists the necessity of learning all knowledge of human, but also explores the possibility of learning all knowledge of human", through comparing the concept and concept structure which are reflected by nouns of Chinese textbook with existing discipline in university, it struggles to describe objectively knowledge types structure of junior middle school Chinese textbook. And analyzing and comparing the knowledge types of various Chinese textbook versions, it concludes that all four versions of junior middle school Chinese textbook have relatively complete and large types of knowledge framework. But it can be found that there still exists imbalance and the lack of types of knowledge between concepts.Chapter four is the analysis about cognitive level of Chinese textbook. It can be studied from various angles. This paper mainly discusses "cognitive intensify function", "deep thinking function" and "multiple thinking view function". Through analysis and comparison, it holds the opinion that the above three aspects in the four versions of junior middle school Chinese textbook weaken. And it draws the conclusion that it is due to the biggest drawback of writing the junior middle school Chinese textbook-the character presupposition error.Chapter five is the analysis of Chinese textbook ideology. Based on reviewing the current situation and existing problems of textbook ideology research, points out that the nouns that can reflect the ideology of Chinese textbook are the ones related to the people. So through the analysis of hidden ideology of the people nouns in the four versions of the junior middle school Chinese textbook, it reveals the problems of "simple ideology" and "rigid ideology" which exist in Chinese textbook.Chapter six is the analysis about the writing rules. Combining the conclusions of all nouns in four versions of junior middle school Chinese textbook, this paper puts forward the writing suggestions for these four versions of Chinese textbook. On this basis, it puts forward the "constitutive rules" and "strategic rules" of "Chinese textbook written speech acts".Chapter seven is the conclusion, summarizing the main content, ideas, innovations and deficiencies of the whole paper as well as the follow-up research prospect.Overall, we hope that this paper research can provide a new perspective for the analysis of the Chinese textbook, offer practical advice for Chinese textbook writing, and make our own effort for the Chinese textbook analysis from the perspective of linguistics.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G634.3
  • 【下载频次】230
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