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团体表扬对学前儿童任务投入的影响研究

【作者】 沙晶莹

【导师】 张向葵;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 发展与教育心理学, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 归属感是人类的基本需求。婴儿从来到这个世界的伊始,就已经准备好建立社会联结。发展至学前阶段,儿童已经能够在与他人的动态交往中形成共同目标,建立社会联结。研究发现,3岁儿童就已经出现内团体偏好现象,小团体足以使5岁儿童产生团队认同。建立社会关系的一个关键,就是积极参与相关活动并产生兴趣。在任务活动中,儿童越积极参与,完成任务就会越有成效。促进个体态度及行为改变是团体的重要功能之一,而使团体发挥相应功能的一个重要因素就是予以评价反馈。但目前关于团体表扬对任务投入影响的实证研究相对较少,且团体评价的研究也较少指向学前儿童。此外,根据社会认同理论,在团体层面存在自我服务偏好现象。不同归因类型的团体表扬可能会对学前儿童带来不同的影响。团队认同是个体在社会分类的基础之上,对自己所属的团体产生认同,并形成了对内部团体的偏好和对外部团体的偏见。因此,本研究有以下四个目的:(1)与个体表扬相比,团体表扬是否能够对学前儿童的任务投入产生更加积极的影响;(2)团体表扬对学前儿童的字词掌握效果是否也有积极影响;(3)团体表扬的归因类型如何影响学前儿童的任务投入;(4)团队认同及保护团队形象的意愿是否影响团体表扬的作用效果。在本研究中,团体表扬组儿童被赋予团体身份,并在完成任务的过程中对儿童所属团体予以表扬;个体表扬组的儿童被赋予个体身份,在儿童完成任务过程中对儿童个体予以表扬;团体身份组的儿童被赋予团体身份,但在儿童完成任务过程中不予以任何评价反馈;控制组儿童不予以任何操作,仅要求儿童完成任务。研究一,对比团体表扬与个体表扬对学前儿童任务投入的影响。结果发现,团体表扬组儿童的坚持性、自我评价水平均优于个体表扬组与控制组;团体表扬组与个体表扬组儿童的任务愉悦度优于控制组。研究二,对团体表扬组与团体身份组儿童的任务投入水平予以研究。结果表明,团体表扬组儿童的坚持性、愉悦度及自我评价情况均高于团体身份组。研究三,将儿将童随机分配至团体表扬组、个体表扬组、团体身份组及控制组,在主试的带领下进行字词学习。结果表明:(1)团体表扬组儿童的字词掌握效果及任务投入水平高于其他三组;(2)团队认同水平有效调节了团体表扬对学前儿童字词掌握效果的影响大小。研究四,以班级作为团体标签,对团体表扬的归因类型予以研究。结果发现:(1)内归因团体表扬组儿童的即时任务投入与延时任务投入水平均显著高于外归因团体表扬组儿童;(2)保护团体形象意愿作为中介变量,会影响不同归因类型团体表扬对学前儿童任务投入的作用效果;(3)团体表扬对学前儿童任务愉悦度的影响机制是一个有调节的中介,团队认同调节中介模型的后半路径。根据研究一至研究四的研究结果,本文作出以下结论:第一,团体表扬与个体表扬相比,前者是一种更有效的学前儿童评价方式。第二,在任务操作与字词掌握中,团体表扬均能有效发挥积极作用。第三,团体表扬通过影响学前儿童保护团体形象意愿,进而对任务投入水平产生影响;儿童的团队认同又会影响保护团体形象意愿对其愉悦度的作用效果。第四,团体表扬对学前儿童任务投入的影响有一定的长时效应。

【Abstract】 Belonging is a basic human need,and research on attachment shows that infants enter the world ready to form social connections. For pre-school children, they form social connections in a dynamic interaction with others. Some research found that 3-year-old children already appear in-group preference. Furthermore, minimal group were sufficient to induce 5-year-old children’s group identity. An important part of forming social relationships involves participating in and developing an interest in activities.Indeed, when children are more engaged they typically learn more from school activities. The ability to stimulate changes in attitudes and behavior is an important part of any group’s functioning. One of the tools for eliciting such changes is providing feedback on group’s performance. However, this kind of research is especially rare, and never concerns preschool children. According to Social Identity Theory, people tend to favor the ingroup over the outgroup, regardless of their age or gender. The attributional content of group-directed praise will affect per-school children.Social identity is based on social categorization and produce intergroup prejudice. Therefore,the purpose of this study is to investigate:(1)Compared with individual-directed praise,whether group-directed praise will have a more positive effect on preschooler or not.(2)Examine the positive effect of group-directed praise on academic activities.(3)Whether different attribution of group-directed praise will affect preschoolers’ task engagement or not.(4) Test whether group identity and group image concern will affect the relationship between group-directed praise and task engagement.Children in ‘group-directed praise condition’ have group membership and get group-directed praise. ‘Individual-directed praise’ is the condition in which children get individual identity and individual-directed praise. ‘Group-member condition’ just gives subject a group membership. Children in ‘control group’ only have to finish tasks.In study 1, we compared the positive effect of individual-directed praise and group-directed praise. The study finds, group-directed praise have the most positive effect on children’s persistence and self-evaluation. Furthermore, both individual and group-directed praise, are all have positive effect on preschoolers’ enjoyment.In study 2, we examined the task engagement of Group-directed praise condition and Group identity condition. The study finds, children in Group-directed praise condition have higher task persistence, task enjoyment and self-evaluation.In study 3, Children were randomly assigned to four conditions. Respectively,‘Group-directed praise condition’, ‘Individual praise condition’, ‘Group identity condition’and ‘Control condition’. And then the experimenter brought children to learn four novel objects. The study finds,(1) Children in ‘group-directed praise condition’ show a significant higher engagement than the other children.(2) Group identity can moderate the relationship between group-directed praise and knowledge learning. High identifiers will perform much better than low identifiers when getting group-directed praise.In study 4, we give different class different attribution types of group-directed praise.The study finds,(1) Internal attribution group praise have more positive effect on both the immediate and successor task engagement.(2)Group image concern will mediate the relationship between group praise attribution type and preschoolers’ task engagement.(3) Therelationship between group-directed praise and task enjoyment is a moderated mediator.Group identity will moderate the back path of the mediated model.Study1-4 shows:(1) Group-directed praise is more influential than individual-directed praise.(2) Group-directed praise have positive effect on both task engagement and knowledge learning.(3) Group image concern mediate the relationship between group-directed praise and task engagement. Furthermore, group identity can moderate the path between group image concern and task enjoyment.(4) Group-directed praise has long-term effects on preschoolers’ task engagement.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
  • 【分类号】G444
  • 【下载频次】56
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