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元认知监控的一致性及其发展研究

【作者】 吴先超

【导师】 刘华山;

【作者基本信息】 华中师范大学, 发展与教育心理学, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 学生在日常学习活动中,通常需要在规定时间完成规定的认知任务,这就涉及到个体如何认识学习材料,如何认识自己的学习能力与状态,如何调节控制学习时间等问题,这是近年来教育与心理学界关心的重要主题。个体对自我认知状况判断的准确性高低如何,这种准确性是否稳定,是有赖于偶然的情境,还是有赖于稳定的特质,这就是元认知的状态(state-based)与特质(trait-based)之争的问题,即元认知监测控制(简称监控)在不同条件下是否具有一致性或者相对稳定性的问题,如果具有一致性或相对稳定性(即元认知监控一致性),那么这种一致性在不同年龄阶段具有怎样的发展规律,就成为元认知领域研究的重要课题。本研究以元认知监控一致性为研究视角,以小学一、三、五年级、初中、高中、大学等年龄段学生为对象,从跨任务、跨情境、跨材料、跨时间等维度,通过文本材料学习测验、图形推理测验收集被试元认知监测与控制两个方面的实验数据,全面考察元认知监测判断的学习难度判断(EOL)、材料熟悉度判断(FOK)、学习程度判断(JOL)、测验项目难度回溯判断(EOLh)、学习自信心判断(JOC)及元认知控制的重读选择与时间分配的一致性及其发展状况、差异性特征,从以下几个部分开展实验研究:第一,围绕元认知监控是否具有一致性展开研究。以大学生为被试,从跨任务、跨情境、跨材料、跨时间等维度进行文本阅读与图形推理测验实验研究,考察了元认知监控一致性状况。第二,围绕元认知监控一致性是否具有由不稳定到相对稳定的发展趋势展开研究。以小学(一、三、五年级)、初中、高中、大学等年龄段学生为对象,考察元认知监控的准确性、一致性及其发展趋势。第三,考察不同认知水平大学生的元认知监控在跨任务、跨情境、跨材料和跨时间维度下的一致性差异。通过以上研究,本文获得如下主要结论:1.大学生元认知监测总体上具有一致性。大学生元认知监测具有跨任务、跨情境、跨时间的一致性,不具有跨材料的一致性。2.大学生元认知控制在重读选择上具有跨时间的一致性,在时间分配上不具有跨时间一致性。3.总体上看,元认知监测具有一致性,但不同年龄段又有其特异性,即高年龄段学生元认知监测比低年龄段学生表现出更多的一致性。(1)元认知监测从初中、高中、到大学各年龄段学生均具有跨任务的一致性,其中高中生比初中生、大学生一致性程度高。(2)元认知监测在初中阶段不具有跨情境的一致性,在高中、大学阶段具有跨情境的一致性,各年龄段间的一致性差异不显著。(3)高中生元认知监测判断各指标具有跨材料的一致性,初中生、大学生跨材料的一致性不显著;初中、高中及大学各年龄段学生元认知监测的跨材料一致性没有显著差异。(4)小学一年级、高中、大学阶段各项元认知监测指标具有跨时间的一致性,小学五年级部分元认知监测指标具有跨时间的一致性,小学三年级、初中生各项元认知监测指标不具有跨时间的一致性。4.从小学、初中、高中到大学,元认知控制部分指标具有跨时间的一致性。5.高认知水平组大学生比低认知组大学生元认知监测跨任务、跨情境一致性程度更高。6.总体上,元认知监控准确性具有从低年龄段到高年龄段逐渐提高的发展趋势。

【Abstract】 Students’ learning activities in daily life usually require to complete the regulation cognitive tasks in the allotted time, which relates to the individual how to learn and understand the learning material, how to know his/her learning ability and status, and how to regulate and control learning time and other issues, and so on. It is also more important themes which are concerned in education and psychology profession in recent years. Whether the individual’s self-perception judgment is accurate? And whether this accuracy is consistent in different scenes, times or conditions? And whether this accuracy is dependent on the scene by chance, or depends on a stable trait? This is the dispute between meta-cognitive the state (state-based) and traits (trait-based), namely, is meta-cognitive monitoring and controlling (short for monitoring) consistent or stable in cross-task, cross-context, cross-material, across-time and even in other conditions, whether it will change and what changes will be in different ages, also, all of them have become the important research topics in the field of meta-cognition.This research tried to unfold the consistency of students’ meta-cognitive monitoring at different ages, including primary school students of grade1,3,5, junior high school students, high school and university students, and analyzing whether there was meta-cognitive monitoring consistency in cross-task, cross-context, cross-material, across-time and other conditions. Furthermore, this article also studied the development trends of meta-cognitive monitoring consistency in the students of different ages. In this research, meta-cognitive monitoring judgment task were task difficulty judge (EOL), material familiarity judge (FOK) and the degree of learning (JOL), and test item difficulty back judgment (EOLh), learning confidence judgment (JOC), selection and time distribution and meta-cognitive control. The experimental study materials were reading comprehensive test and graphic reasoning. This article was mainly from the following several parts to carry out the experimental study:In the first research, college students were tested, with five experiments to investigate meta-cognitive monitoring consistency in cross-task, cross-context, cross-material, across time, and meta-cognitive control consistency across time.In the second research, pupils in grades1,3and5, junior and senior middle school students and college students were tested to investigate meta-cognitive monitoring accuracy and consistency in three dimensions of cross-task, cross-context, cross-material and across time, and to investigate the characteristics of meta-cognitive monitoring in different groups, as well as its development trends.In the third research, the consistency of college students of different cognitive were tested across-monitoring tasks, across contexts, across the materials and across time.Through the research, this paper obtained the following main conclusions:1. The results showed that college students’ meta-cognitive monitoring had consistent in generally. They possess meta-cognitive monitoring consistency in cross-task, cross-context, and across time, but without the existence of consistency in across-materials.2. There was meta-cognitive control consistency across time in rereading choice, and the allocation of learning time was not consistent.3. Meta-cognitive monitoring had consistency in overall, but it was different in different age groups and different dimensions. High age groups showed more consistency than low age groups.(1) From junior middle school, high school, to university students, meta-cognitive monitoring of all ages had consistency across tasks, the degree of consistency in high school students were more than junior middle school students and college students.(2) Meta-cognitive monitoring had no consistency across the scene was in the junior middle school stage, in high school, the university stage had consistency across the scene, and the consistency of the differences between each age group was not significant.(3) Meta-cognitive monitoring across material had no significant difference in junior school, high school and university students, it was to say that meta-cognitive monitoring has no consistency across material.(4) On the consistency of meta-cognitive monitoring, elementary school of grade one, high school, university phase were consistent across time in the meta-cognitive monitoring indicators, fifth grade of the primary school students had consistent in part of meta-cognitive monitoring indicators, but the third grade of the primary school and junior middle school students had no consistent in all of the meta-cognitive monitoring indicators across time.4. Some indexes of meta-cognitive control gradually increased from elementary school, junior high school, high school to university.5. The meta-cognitive monitoring consistency level of high cognitive level college students was higher than that of low cognitive level college students in cross tasks and cross contexts.6. As a whole, meta-cognitive monitoring accuracy was increasing from low age to high age.

【关键词】 元认知监控准确性一致性发展
【Key words】 meta-cognitionmonitoringaccuracyconsistencydevelopment

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华中师范大学
  • 【分类号】G442
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