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“问题引领下的史料教学”的实践研究与反思

【作者】 郑娟

【导师】 刘军;

【作者基本信息】 南京师范大学, 学科教学, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 随着中学历史课程改革的不断深入,历史教学界越来越认识到史料教学在中学历史教学中的价值与作用。“问题引领下的史料教学”是在历史教学过程中,教师指导学生,以问题为驱动,以史料为载体的一种史料教学的方法。其主要意义在于师生用探究的方式运用史料,让学生懂得如何围绕问题搜集和鉴别史料,鼓励学生解释史料,并从史料中发现问题、解决问题和论证问题,从而激发学生学习兴趣,培养学生的问题意识,提高学生的历史思维能力,转变传统的学习方式,进而推动历史教学的改革。本文结合史料教学的理论和实践,针对中学史料教学的问题,主要分四个部分进行论述,具体内容如下:第一章“问题引领下的史料教学”的内涵与意义,阐述了史料的含义和分类,史料教学的内涵和由来以及“问题引领下的史料教学”的概念和意义。第二章“问题引领下的史料教学”需处理好的几种关系,包括史料与历史教学的关系,史料教学与其他教学方法的关系,史料教学与问题引领的关系。第三章“问题引领下的史料教学”的实践研究是本文重点阐述的内容,本人结合中学历史教学的实际,以具体的案例探讨如何围绕问题搜集和鉴别史料,如何解读史料和创设问题以及如何巧用史料解决和论证问题。在问题的引领下开展史料教学,一方面培养学生的史料研习能力,另一方面提升学生的tr问题意识”和解决问题的能力。第四章史料教学存在的误区与对策,结合历史课堂教学存在的具体问题,分析了四大误区:(1)把史料教学当成历史教学的全部(2)重形式轻实质,缺乏有效的问题引领(3)把“虚构人物’’和“人造史料”完全等同于历史史料(4)史料教学中导演和主角都是历史教师,并对存在的误区提出相应的对策。史料教学是一个系统工程,在史料教学中教师应积极转变教学观念,不断夯实专业知识,学习相关理论和史料研习的基本技能。此外,政府也要结合国外史料教学的优秀经验,相应地增加史料在教材中的比重,加大历史课程资源的投入,并且改变单一的评价模式,给史料教学的实施提供有力的支持。总之,史料教学已成为21世纪中学历史教学的发展趋势。我们应该抓住新课改所提供的有利契机,不断探索,不断实践,让史料教学在中学的历史课堂中发挥其日益重要的作用。

【Abstract】 With the middle school history curriculum reform, the history educational circles are increasingly recognizing the value and function of historical teaching in history teaching in middle school. " History Teaching" under the guidance of the history teaching process, teachers guide students to question, to drive, to historical materials as a carrier of historical teaching. Its main significance lies in the teachers and students to explore ways to make use of historical data, let the students know how to collect and identify the historical materials, encourage students to explain the historical data, and discover a problem, solve the problem and demonstrate problem from historical data, so as to stimulate students’ interest in learning, to cultivate students’ question consciousness, improve the students’ ability of historical thinking, change the traditional learning style, and promote the reform of history teaching.Combining with the theory and practice of history teaching in middle school, historical teaching problems, mainly consists of four parts, the specific contents are as follows:The first chapter " the connotation of problems under the guidance of historical sources teaching " and the significance, elaborated the meaning and classification of historical data, the concept and meaning and origin of" historical teaching and the problems under the guidance of historical sources teaching "The second chapter " problem leading teaching " the several relations well, including the relationship between the historical data and the history teaching, the relationship between teaching and other teaching methods, the relationship between leading historical teaching and problems.The third chapter "the problem lead the practice of history teaching under the " is this paper focuses on the content, I combined the middle school history teaching practice, with specific case to explore how the collection and identification of historical data, how to interpret the historical data and the creation of the problem and how to solve problems and demonstrate smart material history. In historical teaching in the lead, to cultivate students’ ability to learn the historical data on the one hand, on the other hand, to enhance students’ ability of" problem consciousness" and problem solving.Misunderstandings and Countermeasures in the fourth chapter the history teaching, combined with the specific problems of history teaching in the classroom, analyzes four mistakes:(1) the historical teaching as the teaching of history are (2) the form of light weight material, the lack of effective guiding problems (3) the " fictional" and " artificial materials " exactly the same in history (4) director and star historical teaching is teachers of history, and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures to the misunderstanding.Historical teaching is a systematic project, in the historical teaching teachers should change the teaching idea, consolidate the professional knowledge, the basic skill learning theory and historical studies. In addition, the government also should combine the excellent experience of foreign historical teaching, a corresponding increase in the proportion of historical materials in history curriculum resources, increase investment, and change a single evaluation model, provides the powerful support to the implementation of historical teaching.In a word, the historical teaching has become the development trend of history teaching in middle school in twenty-first Century. We should seize the favorable opportunity, the new curriculum reform provides the ceaseless exploration, practice, let the historical teaching play its important role in middle school history teaching.

【关键词】 史料史料教学问题引领
【Key words】 leadthe historicalmaterialsteaching

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 南京师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.51
  • 【下载频次】131
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