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美国中小学课堂文化的案例研究

【作者】 李莎莎

【导师】 张传燧;

【作者基本信息】 湖南师范大学, 教育管理(专业学位), 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 课堂文化是一种课堂氛围。它对教师和学生的课堂生活和行为有着强烈的影响,对课堂改革也有着重要的制约作用。在文化多元视角中,重新审视中小学课堂价值取向,从课堂文化层面对课堂的实质进行剖析,形成中小学课堂文化建设的基本思路。这既是对课堂深层结构的理性思考,又正是本研究的意义所在。本研究首先对课堂文化的内涵、构成、特征与功能进行理论研究,在此基础上,通过对美国课堂教学过程、对学生课堂内外行为进行观察、在与教师交流中侧面了解、在与家长沟通中间接了解、对教育部门领导进行采访等途径来探讨美国课堂文化。分别从课堂环境文化(包括教室布置、座位编排、班级规模、课堂气氛)、课堂行为文化(包括对话互动的教学方式、合作探究的学习方式、平等对话的师生关系)、课堂制度文化(包括发展个性的教学走班制度、自由民主的教学规章制度、形式多样的教学奖励制度)、课堂评价文化(包括激发活力的课堂评价、展示自我的作业评价、重视能力的作业评价)来探讨美国中小学课堂教学文化,并从以人为本,突出能力,民主平等,相互尊重,发展个性,重视创造,学会学习,寓教于乐等方面来分析了美国中小学课堂文化的特点。接下来,针对美国中小学课堂文化的成因进行了探析。该部分从美国多元融合的文化模式、地方分权的管理体制、崇尚自由的民族精神、社会群体的教育观念和自主灵活的教育制度来探讨美国中小学课堂文化的成因。最后,探讨了美国中小学课堂文化给我们的启示。在该部分结合美国中小学课堂教学的做法,给我们以下的启示:构建多元融合的课堂文化、构建民主尊重的课堂文化、构建自由开放的课堂文化。

【Abstract】 Classroom culture is a kind of classroom atmosphere. It has a strong influence on Teachers’ and students’ classroom life and behavior, and it also plays an important role in the classroom reform. In the perspective of cultural diversity, to re-examine the value orientation of classroom teaching, from the classroom cultural level to analyze the essence of the classroom, the formation of primary and secondary school classroom cultural construction of the basic ideas. This is not only the rational thinking of the deep structure of the classroom, but also the significance of this study.This study first researched the theoretical meaning of classroom culture connotation, composition, characteristics and functions. On top of that, through to the classroom teaching process, the classroom behavior of observation in and outside of the class, the opinions exchange with teachers, and communication with parents, interview the leaders of the Department of education, I can explore the American classroom culture.Respectively from the classroom environment(including culture,classroom seating arrangement, class size, classroom atmosphere),classroom behavior(interactive teaching methods, cooperative learning methods, equal teacher-student relationship), institutional culture in the classroom teaching of development(classified classes teaching,democratic teaching rules and regulations and a variety of teaching evaluation), evaluation system(including motivated classroom evaluation,self demonstration homework evaluation, ability oriented homework evaluation) to explore the classroom teaching culture in American schools.And from the human-oriented, ability prominent, democracy and equality,mutual respect, development of personality, creativity, learning,entertaining areas to analyze the characteristics of classroom culture in American elementary and secondary schools. Next, the causes of classroom culture in primary and secondary schools in the United States were studied. This part from the multicultural fusion of cultural patterns,decentralization of management system, advocating the education concept of freedom of the national spirit, social groups and autonomous and flexible educational system, explored the origin of American primary and secondary school classroom culture. Finally, it discussed the enlightenment of American Elementary and middle school classroom culture. In this part, combined with the practice of classroom teaching in primary and secondary schools in the United States, it gave us the following enlightenment: to build a diversified classroom culture, to build a democratic and respected classroom culture, to build a free and open classroom culture.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 湖南师范大学
  • 【分类号】G639.712
  • 【下载频次】134
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