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湖南省幼儿园教育“小学化”现状调查研究

【作者】 谭湘府

【导师】 杨莉君;

【作者基本信息】 湖南师范大学, 学前教育学, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 近些年,学前教育事业的发展非常迅速。在量上,政府不断新建、扩建一批幼儿园来满足基本的入园需求;在质上,不断加强了幼儿教师队伍的建设。幼儿教育能否达到一个质的飞跃,很大程度上受到幼儿园教育“小学化”的影响。幼儿园教育“小学化”主要表现在教育理念、教育内容、教育形式及方法、班级管理与规范、一日生活制度、活动场地和设施设备和环境创设等几个方面。研究者采用目的性抽样,以湖南省幼儿园为总体,考虑不同地域及经济发展水平因素,结合幼儿园所在位置和幼儿园所属性质,抽取湘西、湘中、湘南、湘北以及湘中幼儿园各8所,共计40所的幼儿园教师进行调研。调研采用自编问卷:幼儿园教育现状调查,问卷经过项总分析、探索性因素分析以及验证性因素分析的检验得出最终正式问卷。问卷调查的同时,每所幼儿园选取2名教师和家长进行深入访谈,获取幼儿园教育“小学化”现象形成的可能原因并提出针对性的建议。研究结果显示:1、湖南省幼儿园教育“小学化”在部分维度上有所表现湖南省幼儿园教育“小学化”在班级管理与规范、教育内容及组织形式、环境创设等几个维度上的表现较为明显,需要引起相关部门的高度重视。2、湖南乡镇幼儿园教育“小学化”比城市幼儿园更为严重不管是在总体上还是各个分维度上,城市幼儿园和乡镇幼儿园在幼儿园教育“小学化”的表现上存在显著差异,乡镇幼儿园在教育“小学化”的表现上显著高于城市幼儿园。3、湖南省民办幼儿园教育“小学化”比公办幼儿园更为严重在总体上和各个分维度上,公办幼儿园和民办幼儿园在教育“小学化”的表现上存在及其显著差异,民办幼儿园在教育“小学化”表现上显著高于公办幼儿园。4、湖南省幼儿园教育“小学化”受多重因素的影响通过访谈,湖南省幼儿园教育“小学化”受到多方面因素的影响。如政府层面、社会层面、幼儿园层面、家长层面以及幼儿教师层面等。研究者以此提出改进湖南省幼儿园教育“小学化”的几点建议:政府部门提高自身的管理职能,加大投入、指导和监管力度;从职前阶段和在职阶段两方面入手,多渠道提高幼儿教师的专业素养和工作环境;积极正面引导家长,逐步改进家长的教育观念等。

【Abstract】 Preschool education develops very fast in recent years. The government on the one hand keeps raising more kindergartens by building new ones and expanding old ones to meet the basic need of the society; on the other hand the government keeps improving the quality of preschool education by strengthening teacher’s abilities and skills.Preschool education will or not be able to gain a qualitative leap in development to a large extend influenced by the “Elementarization” of itself. “Elementarization” of the kindergartens can be seen from the aspects of philosophy, content, organization, conduction, daily form,environment and material of the education.The investigators divide Hunan province into 5 sections which are Eastern, Western, Southern, Northern and Middle part of Hunan and each section they purposively choose 8 kindergartens which in total 40 samples by considering different levels of development and by combining various locations and characters of the kindergartens. The survey uses a self-compiled questionnaire Investigation on Current Situation of the Kindergarten Education. It forms the final official questionnaire by checking the results from a comprehensive analysis on items, exploratory factors and verification factors of the questionnaire itself. At the sametime conducting the survey, each kindergarten has two personnel of a teacher and a parent for a close visit to get to know reasons for the“Elementarization” of preschool education and after that propose proper and according suggestions.1. “Elementarization” of preschool education in Hunan province is not that severe overall but in some aspects it is.“Elementarization” of preschool education in Hunan province is not that severe overall because of continuous efforts in recent years. But it should be taken seriously that “Elementarization” on aspects like conduction,content, organization and environment of the education cannot be ignored.2. Kindergartens in cities and in towns/countries show significant difference on “Elementarization” levels.No matter overall or each aspect separately, kindergartens show marked difference between they are in cities and in towns/countries.Kindergartens in towns/countries are much severer regarding the“Elementarization” problem.3. Public kindergartens and private kindergartens show significant difference on “Elementarization” levels.No matter overall or each aspect separately, kindergartens show marked difference between public kindergartens and private kindergartens which are much severer.4. “Elementarization” of preschool education in Hunan province is influenced by various factors.Interviews show that the “Elementarization” of preschool education in Hunan province is influenced by various factors such as the government,society, kindergarten itself, parents, teachers and etc.The investigators thus propose several suggestions to improve the current “Elementarization” situation of kindergartens in Hunan province.One is that the government should improve their management abilities and increase investment, guidance and supervision. Two is to improve abilities of and environments for the teachers both before and after they are employed. Three is to positively guide the parents to improve their philosophy on education.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 湖南师范大学
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