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户外建构游戏的安全问题与对策 ——基于安吉游戏的实践探索

【作者】 胡静奇

【导师】 曹中平;

【作者基本信息】 湖南师范大学, 学前教育(专业学位), 2017, 硕士

【副题名】基于安吉游戏的实践探索

【摘要】 户外建构游戏既有户外游戏开放、自由、运动的属性,又有建构游戏中幼儿动手探索、操作体验的乐趣,它向幼儿提供了探索周围环境的机会,向幼儿提出了运动能力和心智能力的挑战,具有强烈的刺激性和挑战性,在幼儿健康成长的过程中占有重要的地位。然而,正是户外建构游戏的独特性引发了担忧——幼儿的安全是否能够得到保障?幼儿园应开展丰富多彩的户外游戏和体育活动,必须把保护幼儿的生命和促进幼儿的健康放在工作的首位。那么,如何在挑战与安全之间寻找一个平衡点,给幼儿创设一个支持冒险、挑战、探索的安全环境呢?近年来,安吉游戏日益受到广泛的关注,而户外建构游戏是其最具有代表性的游戏形式。为此,本研究选择安吉县某幼儿园作为基地,通过运用观察法、访谈法、案例分析考察户外建构游戏安全的现状及其影响因素,并提出相应的优化策略,以期为幼儿园游戏实践提供一些有益启示。本研究主要从安全问题表现、安全问题成因及风险规避方式三个方面来描述安吉户外建构游戏的总体状况,研究发现:第一,安吉户外建构游戏安全问题主要表现为:1.户外建构游戏区域中,低结构的建构最容易出现危险情境;2.危险情境不存在年龄班差异、性别差异;3.户外建构游戏中的已发危险的伤害类型差异明显,其中跌落是最容易发生的伤害;4.游戏过程中发生的危险事件,伤害程度存在显著差异,约89%都是轻伤,不影响幼儿正常游戏;第二,安吉户外游戏安全问题成因主要是幼儿自身因素,环境材料因素居次。幼儿自身因素占到75%,主要表现为幼儿预知潜在风险的能力相对欠缺、运动技能与运动意愿之间的失配。第三,户外建构游戏中的风险规避主要靠幼儿完成,自我解决问题是幼儿规避风险的主要形式。由此可见,我们应从幼儿的自我保护与教师的合理保护关系、危险的利与弊、风险的偶然性与必然性三个方面辩证的看待建构游戏的安全问题。安吉游戏的实践经验丰富,户外建构游戏的安全理念和举措有很多值得学习。1.形成科学的游戏安全观,变消极保护为积极促进;2.安全责任落实到行动之中,安全教育具有切实的针对性;3.建立相互信任的师幼关系、家园关系,共同保障户外游戏的安全性。

【Abstract】 Outdoor constructive play has the features of outdoor games,such as opening, freedom,motility, and combines them with the joy of hands-on exploration, operating experience from the constructive play.It provides opportunities for children to explore the surrounding environment, and poses challenges to children on movement ability and mental ability.Outdoor constructive play is quite stimulating and challenging,which plays an important role in children’s healthy growth.However,it is its unique that has caused some educators’ worry:whether children’s safety can be guaranteed.Kindergarten should develop all kinds of outdoor games and sports activitiy. At the same time,it must put children’s lives and health in the first place.So, how to find a balance between challenge and safety in order to support children to explore in a safe environment ?In recent years, Anji Play has caused extensive attention increasingly, of which the most typical game form is outdoor constructive play.Therefore,we choose one kindergarten of Anji as a base to investigate current situations and influence factors about the security problems of outdoor constructiveplay by using observation method,interview method,case analysis,then put forward corresponding optimizing strategies for the purpose of providing some beneficial inspirations for kindergarten to put it into practice.This research describes the whole situation of Anji Play from three aspects of current status and influence factors of safety issues, and the risk aversion means.The study founds that:First, the safety problem of Anji Outdoor constructive play is mainly the following :1. In the construction area of the game, the low structure construction area is prone to cause dangerous situations;2.In the occurrence of the dangerous situations,there is no difference in age classes and gender;3.In the dangerous situations that had occurred, there are great differences on injury type,in which the fall is the most happened;4.The extent of injury is different,of which about 89 percent is slight,which doesn’t affect children’s normal playing.Second, the key factor that causes danger is children’s own problem,which accounted for 75%, then is environmental material factors. Children’s own problem mainly shows that children lack ability to predict the potential risks and theirmotor skills don’t match their expectations.Third, risk aversion depends mainly on children during the play,which main form is children solving problems by themselves.Therefore, this research should regard safety problems from three pairs of relations reasoningly: children’s self-protections and protections coming from teachers, the advantages and disadvantages of risk,the contingency and necessity of risk.Anji Play has ample practical experience,whose safety concepts and measures are worth learning:1. Set up a scientific security concept,and change passive protection to positive promotion;2. Put the security responsibility into action,and carry a real pertinence security education; 3.Establish mutual trust relationships between kindergarten and family,teacher and children, and safeguard the safety of outdoor games jointly.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 湖南师范大学
  • 【分类号】G613.7
  • 【下载频次】1133
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