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集体教学背景下发挥幼儿科学探究自主性的行动研究 ——以长沙市S幼儿园大三班为例

【作者】 刘婷

【导师】 郑三元;

【作者基本信息】 湖南师范大学, 学前教育(专业学位), 2017, 硕士

【副题名】以长沙市S幼儿园大三班为例

【摘要】 集体教学背景下幼儿科学探究活动是目前幼儿园常见的教学活动之一,它强调以幼儿的兴趣生成课程,以幼儿的主动探究为教学的主要活动。《3-6岁儿童学习与发展指南》指出探究是科学学习的核心,幼儿科学教育应该尽量创造条件让幼儿实际参加探究活动,使他们在亲身经历的基础上形成对世界的理解并初具自己的理论。然而在当前的教育教学实践中,幼儿科学探究往往流于形式,没有真正发挥“探究”功能。本研究针对当前集体教学中幼儿科学探究缺乏自主性的问题,以“从做中学”、“发现学习”、“建构主义理论”为理论依据,以行动研究作为主要的研究方法,深入长沙市S幼儿园,选取大三班幼儿为研究对象,并与幼儿园的教师合作设计组织教学活动,尝试从幼儿科学探究缺乏自主性的三个方面的表现入手初步解决集体教学背景下幼儿科学探究缺乏自主性的问题。本研究论文一共有五章。第一章为绪论,包括研究缘起、研究意义、概念界定和文献综述四个部分;第二章为研究设计,介绍了研究的目的和内容、研究背景资料、研究方法、研究步骤,研究资料的收集与编码;第三章为研究过程,针对幼儿自主探究兴趣、自主抉择、自主解决问题等自主性三个方面的表现,开展了“树叶”、“沉浮”、“吹泡泡”三个主题活动来解决幼儿科学究缺乏自主性的问题;第四章为研究结果与讨论,首先对本次行动研究取得的结果进行了总结,然后对集体教学背景下影响幼儿科学探究自主性发挥的相关因素进行了探讨;第五章为研究结论与反思。本研究结果表明从幼儿兴趣中生成科学探究活动主题是幼儿自主性发挥的有效途径;丰富开放的材料和安全的心理环境是幼儿在集体教学背景下发挥科学探究自主性的有效条件;集体教学背景下幼儿科学探究自主性的发挥需要教师给予幼儿自主解决问题的机会;教师是影响幼儿在集体教学背景下发挥科学探究自主性的重要因素。

【Abstract】 Children’s scientific inquiry activity is one of the general teaching activities at the kindergarten under the background of collective teaching, which emphasizes the curriculum is based on children’s interests, and the major teaching activity should be children’s initiative inquiry. The Guidance For 3 to 6-Year-old Children ’ s Learning and Development points out that the inquiry is the core of the scientific learning. Therefore, children ’ s scientific education should try to create the environment for children so as to let children take part in the inquiry activities, making children get the understanding of the world on the basis of their own experiences and to develop their primary theories.However, under the presenting practical education and teaching activities, children’s scientific inquiry does not play its function of “Inquiry” but just stay like a form without any valuable meaning.In accordance with the theories “Learning by doing”,“Discovery learning”, and “Constructivisim theory”, this study focus on the problem of children are lacking the autonomy in scientific inquiry under the current collective teaching;the researcher mainly applies the Action research and makes the survey and study at S kindergarten in Changsha; the research objects are chosen from the Class Higher Three, the teaching activities are designed and organized with the cooperation of the teachers at the kindergarten, with all these theories and the activities, the research tries to study the problem that children are lacking the autonomy in scientific inquiry from the three major aspects under the background of collective instruction.This thesis is composed of five chapters. The first chapter is introduction, which includes four parts: the research origin,the research significance, the related concepts definition and the literature review. The second chapter is the research design, which mainly introduces the purposes, contents,background information, methods, procedures of the research as well as collects and codes the research materials. The third chapter is research process, which mainly discusses and develops three theme activities “leaves”, “ups and downs”,and “playing bubbles” from the three major aspects that children are lacking the autonomy in scientific inquiry under the background of collective instruction. The fourth chapter is the research discussion and research result, the researchfirstly concludes the result about the action research, and then discusses the relating factors that has made an influence on the development of children’s autonomy in scientific inquiry under the background of collective instruction. The fifth part is the research conclusion and the research reflection.The research result indicates that it is an effective method to develop the scientific inquiry activities from children’s interests, which fullfills the children’s autonomy in scientific inquiry; rich and general materials, safe physiological environment are efficient conditions for children to play their autonomy in scientific inquiry under the background of collective instruction; teachers are requested to provide children with the opportunities to solve problems by themselves when develop children’s autonomy in scientific inquiry under the background of collective instruction;teachers are the significant factor that affect the development of children ’ s autonomy in scientific inquiry under the background of Collective instruction.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 湖南师范大学
  • 【分类号】G613.3
  • 【下载频次】509
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