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综合化背景下美国小学教师职前培养模式研究

【作者】 刘朝锋

【导师】 饶从满;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 比较教育学, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 卓越的教育取决于卓越的教师。2010年颁布的《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》指出,我们要“加强教师教育,构建以师范院校为主体、大学参与、开放灵活的教师教育体系”,“以师范院校为主体、大学参与”已成为教师教育发展的基本指导方针。不管是2010年颁布的《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》,还是2014年9月18日发布的《关于实施卓越教师培养计划的意见》,都说明了一个问题:教师培养模式的改革己迫在眉睫。教师教育的开放化是伴随着大学升格为教师培养机构逐步深入的。如果说传统的师范教育更加强调的是师范性和实践性的话,那么大学参与教师培养以后,教师教育需要更加重视其学术性和理论性。就我国来说,在由封闭型师范教育向开放型教师教育转型的过程中,教师教育的开放化过程不是一帆风顺的,出现了如下问题:1)传统的高水平大学并未真正参与教师教育或者说参与程度比较低,学术性强的优势没有得到发挥;2)传统的师范大学中教师教育存在边缘化的倾向,在努力拔高学术性的同时,师范性遭到削弱。在此背景下,各高校都在探讨新形势下的教师培养模式改革问题,以确保教师培养质量。许多高校为此进行了内部组织体制改革,如设立教师教育学院、教育学部、师范中心等等。那么,我们无法回避且不得不思考的一个重要问题就是:综合化的背景下,面对开放性的教师培养理念,大学如何有效的培养教师呢?当然,教师的培养是复杂的,从培养的对象来说,就包括幼儿教师、小学教师、中学教师、大学教师等,本研究拟通过对美国四所不同类型大学里小学教师职前培养模式的比较与分析,探究他们在教师培养过程中是如何按照自己的路径一步步走向成功的,有何特色,又有哪些趋同的东西,从而尝试提出一些大学里小学教师职前培养的参考建议,为大学有效的教师培养提供指导,具体包括以下六章内容:第一章,美国大学作为教师培养机构的历史探析。在本章中主要回答了以下几个问题:首先,梳理了从19世纪末20世纪初至今一百多年时间里,大学进行教师培养的历史脉络;其次,讨论了美国大学开展教师培养的两类路径,具体又分为三种方式;最后,总结了大学开展教师培养的几种模式,并对大学参与教师培养存在的问题进行了分析。第二章,恩波利亚大学小学教师职前培养模式研究。本章以恩波利亚州立大学(ESU)小学教师职前培养模式为研究对象,在“二关系五要素”的分析框架下,从三个方面进行了分析:1)恩波利亚州立大学教师学院的历史发展,再现了教师学院是如何一步步发展到今天的,有哪些继承和发展;2)以五要素为基,梳理了恩波利亚州立大学里小学教师职前培养模式的基本内容,帮助我们全面的了解初等教育项目的内容;3)在“二关系”(理论性与实践性关系、学术性与专业性关系)的视角下,对ESU教师培养模式进行了深度探析和重新解构。(?)小学教师职前培养模式为研究对象,在“二关系五要素”的分析框架下,从三个方面进行了分析:1)弗吉尼亚大学柯里学院的历史发展;2)以五要素为基,梳理了弗吉尼亚大学柯里学院教师培养模式的基本内容;3)在“二关系”的视角下,对弗吉尼亚大学柯里学院教师培养模式进行了深度探析和重新解构。第四章,斯坦福大学小学教师职前培养模式研究。本章以斯坦福大学小学教师职前培养模式为研究对象,在“二关系五要素”的分析框架下,从三个方面进行了分析:1)斯坦福大学教育研究院的历史发展;2)以五要素为基,梳理了斯坦福大学教师培养模式的基本内容;3)在“二关系”的视角下,对斯坦福大学教师培养模式进行了深度探析和重新解构。第五章,加利福尼亚伯克利分校小学教师职前培养模式研究。本章以加利福尼亚伯克利分校(UC Berkeley)小学教师职前培养模式为研究对象,在“二关系五要素”的分析框架下,从三个方面进行了分析:1)加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校教育研究院的历史发展;2)以五要素为基,梳理了加利福尼亚伯克利分校教师培养模式的基本内容;3)在“二关系”的视角下,对加利福尼亚伯克利分校教师培养模式进行了深度探析和重新解构。第六章,综合化背景下小学教师职前培养策略探究。本章通过比较美国不同路径下四所大学的小学教师职前培养模式,尝试提出一些关于大学有效培养教师的策略建议。本章主要包括三方面内容:首先,在“二关系五要素”分析框架下,比较分析了四所大学里小学教师职前培养模式的共性和差异性;其次,在比较的基础上,通过探究四所不同大学里小学教师职前培养模式“多样性中的规律”,进而尝试提出大学有效培养小学教师的策略建议;最后,结合四所大学开展教师培养模式的内容,对未来几年美国教师教育走势做出了简单预测。

【Abstract】 Excellent education depends on outstanding teachers. From Outline of China’s National Plan for Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020) issued in 2010, we can find that we should strengthen teacher education and build a flexible and open system of teacher education, which includes the effort from both normal universities and comprehensive universities. This has become the basic guidelines for the development of teacher education. Both the above mentioned Outline and the Opinion on Implementing Outstanding Teachers’Training Program issued on September 18,2014 indicate that the reform of teacher training model is coming.Along with the university as the institute of teacher training, the open process of teacher education was beginning. If we consider that traditional normal education stress much on training and practice, the new teacher education system should pay more attention on academy and theory along with the universities as the institute of teacher education. However, the open process of teacher education is not smooth and fruitful, and there are problems such as:1) in the traditional university, the involvement of teacher education is relatively low.2) Teacher education in traditional teachers college tends to be marginalized. In this context, all colleges and universities have been discussing the reform of teacher training mode under the new situation, in order to ensure the quality of teacher training. Many colleges and universities have been carrying out reforms within the organization, such as the establishment of Teacher Education College, Faculty of Education, and so on. An important issue which cannot be avoided and deserves our attention is how to effectively train teachers in comprehensive universities. This study compares and analyzes different teacher training models in four American universities, trying to construct a comprehensive university teacher training model frame. The research includes the following six chapters.In the first chapter, the author reviews the history of American universities involved in teacher training. In this chapter, the main aim is to solve the following problems:First, this thesis sorts out the historical context about universities’participating in training teacher in America from the late 19th to early 20th century. Secondly, the author discusses the two paths of American university’s taking part in teacher training. Third, this thesis summarizes the types of university teacher training model. Finally, it analyzes the problems of the university involved in teacher training.The second chapter, a study focuses on the primary teacher initial preparation mode in Emporia State University (ESU). To train teachers who are critical thinkers, innovative planners and effective practitioners is the objective of the ESU teacher training. In the perspective of "Two-relationships and Five-elements" the chapter discusses in detail by three parts:1) a brief introduction about of teacher college in Emporia State University.2) through the five factors, we present the fundamental state of primary teacher initial preparation in Emporia State University.3) in the perspective of two relations (relation between theoretical and practical, and relation between academic and normal), we get a deep analysis and deconstruction about the primary teacher initial preparation in Emporia State University.The third chapter, we research the primary teacher initial preparation in the University of Virginia (UVA). The aim of the University of Virginia’s Curry School is that teachers become valid decision makers. In the perspective of "Two-relationships and Five-elements" the chapter is discussed in detail by three parts:1) a brief introduction about Curry College in UVA.2) Through the five factors, we present the fundamental state of primary teacher initial preparation in Curry College.3) In the perspective of two relations, we get a deep analysis and deconstruction about the primary teacher initial preparation in Curry College.The fourth chapter, we study the primary teacher initial preparation in Stanford University. Cultivating teacher leaders within core values is the aim of teacher training program at Stanford University project (STEP). In the perspective of "Two-relationships and Five-elements" the chapter is discussed in detail by three parts:1) a brief introduction about Graduate School of Education in Stanford University.2) through the five factors, we present the fundamental state of primary teacher initial preparation in Stanford University.3) in the perspective of two relations, we get a deep analysis and deconstruction about the primary teacher initial preparation in Stanford University.The fifth Chapter, we study the primary teacher initial preparation in California at Berkeley (UC Berkeley). Creating high-quality academic, training the next generation of educators and improving professional practice are the three missions of California Berkeley Graduate School of Education (GSE). In the perspective of "Two-relationships and Five-elements", this chapter is discussed in detail by three parts:1) a brief introduction about Graduate School of Education in California at Berkeley.2) Through the five factors, we present the fundamental state of primary teacher initial preparation in California at Berkeley. 3) in the perspective of two relations, we get a deep analysis and deconstruction about the primary teacher initial preparation in California at Berkeley.The sixth Chapter, under the background of integration we explore to get the frame about the primary teacher initial preparation mode. We try to construct a frame about efficient training teacher model in comprehensive university by comparing four teacher training model of four comprehensive universities. There are three parts including in the chapter:First, under the perspective of Two-relationships and Five-elements, the author analyzes the similarities and differences among four teacher training model. Secondly, on a comparative basis, by exploring four different universities teacher training mode we want to find the rule in diversity, and then construct a frame for primary teacher training model. And finally, combined with the pros and cons of four primary teacher training model in four universities, we try to have a prediction of the American teacher education in the next few years.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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