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我国信息技术课程发展的路向与策略研究

【作者】 张晓卉

【导师】 解月光;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 世界各国对信息社会人才的培养寄予厚望,对信息技术课程的改革尤为关注。当前我国正迈入信息化社会,信息技术课程在信息化社会人才培养中发挥着核心作用,当大众化的信息技术成为当代学生的生活方式和思维方式时,拥有一个相对稳定的课程内容和核心价值是信息技术课程应有的追求,因而人们不断地追问,信息技术课程发展的方向在何处。国内外的研究表明,课程发展研究正在成为国际课程改革研究领域的一个重要内容。经过30余年的发展,我国的信息技术课程研究取得了一定的成绩,也有对未来信息技术课程发展方向的探讨,但是关于信息技术课程发展的系统性研究不足。因此,“信息技术课程发展的路向”成为本研究关注的基本问题。本研究采取定量与定性结合的策略,综合运用历史研究法、比较研究法、调查研究法、民族志、生活史等研究方法,围绕研究问题收集、处理和分析文献资料与实证数据。论文共分为八章,涵盖四个主要研究问题:我国信息技术课程发展的过程与特点是什么;我国信息技术课程发展的现状如何;我国信息技术课程发展的路向是什么;如何保障信息技术课程的变革和可持续发展。本研究的主要发现是:历史表明信息技术课程在计算机科学与技术为驱动力的合力中前行。首先,正是计算机科学开启了信息技术课程之路,我国信息技术课程的变革正是沿着计算机科学与技术的进化之路前行的。其次,课程理念引领和推动着信息技术课程,历史上曾经有三个重要的课程理念影响着我国信息技术课程的发展,分别是计算机文化论、计算机工具论和信息素养论。再次,我国信息技术课程政策交织着国家的顶层设计与地方的实践探索。现状显示信息技术课程已不能满足“数字土著”的诉求。首先,学生已经是“数字土著”一代,形成了数字化的生活方式、学习方式和思维方式。其次,社会已经发展到信息时代,它让人的社会交往和社会互动呈现出信息化的特征,也为学生营造了一个无所不在的数字化学习环境。再次,信息技术实施过程反映出,信息技术课程已经不能满足信息化社会学生发展的需要。信息技术课程发展的路向是“计算思维”为核心的信息技术课程改革。第一个“向”就是更新信息技术课程理念,“立德树人”作为信息技术课程的根本任务,“核心素养”是引领信息技术课程改革的核心理念。第二个“向”是优化课程目标,数字素养应该作为信息素养概念的延伸,成为信息技术课程的通识目标,把技术创新看作信息技术课程的高阶目标。第三个“向”是构建信息技术学科的核心素养,包括计算思维、数字化学习和信息意识,其中信息技术课程的学科本质是计算思维,学习方式是数字化学习,育人价值是信息意识。第四个“向”是调整信息技术课程内容,总结出计算机科学技术学科是我国信息技术课程的上游学科,计算机科学技术已经成为新时期国际信息技术课程的核心内容,我国信息技术课程应该在继承计算机科学技术的经典知识基础上,适当引入新技术、新工具,并形成严谨的信息技术课程知识体系。信息技术课程变革需要系统化课程政策为导向的一系列的策略支持。第一个策略是制定系统化的课程政策,体现在三个方面:一是将知识、社会与人才发展需要的统一作为政策制定的基本价值,二是修订课程标准,使“路向”转化为具有约束力的课程政策,三是教师专业发展一体化建设,打通理想与现实之间的通道。第二个策略是科学化的课程开发,需要注意三个方面:一是跳出强势文化的影响,重视课程开发的民族性,二是注重课程的顶层设计,一体化规划各学段的课程标准,三是课程评价方式面向学生未来的专业选择,四是教师、学生参与课程决策。第三个策略是营造数字化的学习环境,有以下三项举措:一建设教育信息化基础设施,构建数字化学习的“硬”环境,二是提供数字化学习资源,助力数字化学习的“软”环境,三是建立数字化人际关系,体现信息技术课程的人文关怀。

【Abstract】 Countries from all around the world place high hopes on talent cultivation of information society, especially the IT curriculum reform. China is entering information age, the IT curriculum plays a core role in talent cultivation. When the popular information technologies become the lifestyle and the way of students thinking, the IT curriculum should pursue stability of curriculum content and core value, people constantly ask the way of the IT curriculum. The international research reveals study on development of curriculum is becoming an important part of curriculum reform. After more than 30 years of development, the IT curriculum research in China has obtained certain results. There are some researches on development of the IT curriculum but lack of systematic research. As a result, the direction for the development of the IT curriculum become essential issue.Research adopts the combination of quantitative and qualitative strategies, integrated use of historical method, case method, ethnography, life history, the computation of this investigation, interview method and questionnaire survey research design, collection, treatment and analysis of literature surrounding the research question and the empirical data. The paper can be divided into eight chapters, covers four main questions:What is the processes and characteristics of the IT curriculum in China? What is the status of the IT curriculum in China? What is the direction for the development of the IT curriculum in China? How to guarantee the reform and sustainable development of the IT curriculum in China.The main findings of this study are:History displays the IT curriculum developed in join forces, and computer science and technology is the driving force. Firstly, it is just because computer science starts the journey of IT curriculum that the reforms of the IT curriculum are developing with the revolution of computer science and technology in China. Secondly, curriculum ideas guide and promote the IT curriculum. In history, there were three important curriculum ideas which had been influencing the development of the IT curriculum in China. They are the theory of computer culture, the theory of computer tools, and the theory of information literacy. Thirdly, the policy of the IT curriculum in China is related to the national top-level design and the regional practice and exploration.The present situation reveals the interior and exterior environment of the IT curriculum has changed, the curriculum can’t meet the appeals of digital natives. First, students who have been the generation of digital natives are now leading a digital study life with a digital mode of thinking. Secondly, the society has stepped into the Information Age which features the informatization of the social communications and interactions and creates a ubiquitous digital study environment for students. Thirdly, the process of IT implementation reflects IT curriculum can’t meet the need of students’ development in the information society.The reform of the IT curriculum which centers "computational thinking" is the direction for the development of the IT curriculum. The first course is to update the ideas of IT curriculum. The basic task of the IT curriculum is to "strengthen morality education". The "core literacy" is the key concept of guiding the reform of the IT curriculum. The second course is to optimize curriculum objectives. The digital literacy should be the extension of the concept of information literacy and should be the general goal of the IT curriculum. Technology innovation is regarded as a higher-order goal of the IT curriculum. The third course is to construct the core literacy of IT discipline in terms of computational thinking, digital study and information consciousness. The essence of the IT curriculum is computational thinking, learning approach is digital study, and the moral value is information consciousness. The fourth course is to adjust the contents of the IT curriculum. It is concluded that computer science and technology discipline is the key and basic discipline of the IT curriculum. Computer science and technology has been the core contents of the international IT curriculum in the new era. New technology and new tools should be introduced properly based on the inheritance of classic knowledge of computer science and technology for the IT curriculum, and finally scientific knowledge system of IT curriculum in China is constructed.A series of strategic supports that systematic curriculum policy oriented are needed for the reform of the IT curriculum. The first strategy is the systematic curriculum policy-making in three aspects:1) The unity of knowledge, society, and talents development will serve as he basic value of policy making.2) To revise the curriculum standard in order to transform the "direction" into the binding curriculum policy.3) Integrated construction of teacher’s professional development and get through the pass between the reality and the ideal. The second strategy is the scientific curriculum development. There are three main issues that we need to direct our attention to.1) To avoid the influence of the dominating culture and attach importance to the nationality of the curriculum development.2) To pay attention to the top-down design of the curriculum and plan integrative curriculum standard in different stages.3) The methods of curriculum evaluation target students’ professional choices in the future.4) Teachers and students participate in curriculum decision-making. The third strategy is the creation of digital study environment. Three measures are as follows:1) To construct the infrastructure of educational informationization for the construction of a "hard" environment for digital study.2) To supply digital learning resources to help the construction of digital study "soft" environment.3) To have digital human relationship to reflect humanistic care of the IT curriculum.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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