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实习支教生教师专业身份建构过程的叙事研究

【作者】 谢淑海

【导师】 熊梅;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 我们总是在努力变成某种人,我们每个人也都梦想着成为某类人,这影响着我们生活的方方面面:我们寻找什么样的工作,我们定居在什么地方,我们和谁交往,甚至影响着我们未来的梦想。但是,要知道我们想要什么和我们梦想成为什么样的人,首先得知道“我们是谁”,我们目前的处境。换句话说,那就是我们的身份,它帮助我们设定目标,并规划我们未来的发展路径。如果我们没有理解我们的身份,我们是无法实现我们所希望的,因为我们不清楚我们应走向何方。对教师而言,大量的教师教育研究文献都强调专业身份建构在教师专业发展中的重要性,因为,教师在学校和在专业共同体中的交往,身份建构会伴随教师整个职业生涯,并且,教师专业身份是分析教师教学的框架或棱镜,是教师专业生活的一个组织因素,甚至也可以用来解释、证明和理解与他者和世界关联中的自己。通过对现有文献的分析发现,探索教师专业身份的方式多种多样。因此要完全理解教师专业身份的内涵及其研究方法是一个巨大的挑战。综合而言,教师专业身份是教师对自己身为教师所具有的意义的整体看法。所以,当教师仅为一种职业选择,但是,成为一位专业的教师,则是在每一天的教学生活中形塑和建构的。师范生对身为专业教师的看法,往往决定了明日教师的样貌与意象。“我是谁”和“我想成为怎样的教师”等问题早已引起教师的重视,但是,直到近年来才引起研究者的关注。尽管研究时间较短,不少研究者则强调了教师教育在职前教师专业身份形成中的作用,也有研究者发现实习是职前教师专业身份转变的关键阶段,并且,实习支教教师面临着在教育实践场域互动中的冲突与困惑,对原有的知识和理念带来巨大挑战,从而,有对未来教师生涯的承诺或不确定,也有徘徊在理想和现实之间的拉距,更何况,当前实习支教生是如何建构和发展教师专业身份的,却一直缺乏相关实证研究。因此,这些内心深层的经历及经验值得探究。于是,本研究的目的在于了解实习支教生建构教师专业身份的过程,从而勾勒专业身份建构的形貌及其影响因素,希冀透过研究发现的讨论,进一步思考如何建构实习支教教师专业身份的可能途径。本研究经由五位实习支教生的同意得以进行叙事探究,以访谈作为主要搜集资料的方法,并辅以观察、反思日记分析等策略,进而整理与分析,前后达九个月的时间。深入访谈,聆听他们叙说成为教师的过程以及在实习支教场域的故事,从故事中了解他们专业身份的内涵,探讨其影响因素,分析其教师专业身份建构的过程及特征。依据五位实习支教生的叙说,可以将其教师专业身份建构历程粗略分为:(1)入学动机;(2)前身份;(3)踏上教师之路;(4)教学实践;(5)未来展望。可见,他们的叙说充满丰富了“找寻”与“转化”、对话与协商的内涵,分析他们的叙说可以理解影响其建构教师专业身份的个人因素和社会因素,揭示出五位实习支教教师“前构—形构—再构”的建构过程,这个建构过程也呈现出阶段性、能动性、动态性、差异性特征。基于此,不难发现,实习支教生教师专业身份建构与其过去经验以及个体身处的情境有密切关系。由于教师专业身份建构是一个个体内在自我与外在世界的对话,藉着叙说回溯经验能提高实习支教生对其教师专业身份建构过程的察觉,促进专业成长。因此,本研究的研究过程也有利于实习支教生建构教师专业身份,实习支教也在他们建构教师专业身份过程中起着至关重要的作用。最后,本论文针对高师院校、师范生、中小学和教育行政部门提出了一些建议。

【Abstract】 We are always involved in becoming a certain person. The dreams we have about the type of person we want to become influence all dimensions of our lives:the job we look for, the place we settle in, the people we interact with and even our subsequent dreams. But, knowing what we want and who we dream to become impinges on knowing who we are and where we are at the moment. In other words, it is our identity that helps us with setting goals and shows us the route to take. Without making sense of our identities, we are not able to achieve what we want effectively as we are not clear as to where we are headed. Much recent literature on teacher education highlights the importance of identity in teacher development. It can be used as a frame or an analytic lens through which to examine aspects of teaching. It can also be seen as an organizing element in teachers’professional lives, even a resource that people use to explain, justify and make sense of themselves in relation to others, and to the world at large. In our own efforts to understand the growing literature on teacher identity, we note that identity in teaching has been explored in a variety of very different ways. Reaching a full understanding of the important aspects of identity and the ways in which they are related can be challenging. At a basic level, teacher’s professional identity is the teacher’s conception of herself as a teacher. Therefore, To be a teacher can be nothing but a choice of profession. However, a person can be molded into a professional teacher only though everyday teaching. Teacher professional identity toward the teaching profession can decide the profile and image of teachers. The questions "Who am I?" and "What kind of teacher do I want to be?" have been addressed by teachers for many years, but only in more recent years have researchers recognized the importance of these questions to the teaching profession as a whole. Researchers have emphasized the role that the teacher education plays in the shaping and forming of student teachers’professional identities. However, facing the conflicts and confusions in the interaction of educational practice, student teachers have to challenge their existed knowledge and concepts. Some of them may be uncertain about their commitments to teaching career in the future, and some may be locked in a seesaw struggle between ideal and reality. Few empirical studies have been conducted to investigate how student teachers construct and develop their professional identities. We think their mental processes and experiences are worthy of further discussion. This study aims to explore student teachers’professional identity construction process and further define professional identity and factors affecting it. It is hoped that the effects of teacher education on student teachers’professional construction can be reflected on the one hand, and the possible pathways to develop student teachers’ professional identity can be constructed on the other hand through discussion of the research findings.This study aims to explore how five student teachers learn to be a teacher through a series of key life experience and experiencing different stages of teacher professional identity through his narrative accounts. The study lasts nine months and data are mainly collected through interviews, with compilation and analysis of observational information and reflection journals. From their stories, the study explores the professional identity that five student teachers obtained regarding the meaning of their professional identity so as to understand the five student teachers’ process of pursuing for professional identity and factors affecting the construction of professional identity.It is found that five student teachers’ process of recognizing the teacher professional identity and re-identity was roughly along the lines of the following themes, according their narratives:(1)the enrollment motivation, (2)pre-identity,(3) stepping on the way to becoming a teacher, (4)teaching practices, and (5)future prospects. The narratives brim with "quests" and "transformation", "dialogue" and "negotiation" related to the acquired identity. By analyzing the narratives, the personal and social factors that formed and changed teacher’s professional identity could be understood. The process of "prefiguration-figuration-refiguration" could be revealed. The construction process is also shows the characteristics of periodic, initiative, dynamic and difference.Upon on these findings, the study pointed out that student teacher professional identity has constructed by previous experience in learning and context. Identity construction is a dialogue between internal self and external world. Narrative is a suitable method to assist student teacher reflects their previous life experiences, also promote teacher personal and professional growth. Therefore, an implication of this study is the critical importance of engaging student teachers in discussions that support them in constructing their professional identities. In-post teaching practice plays a vital role in teacher professional identity construction process.Finally, this study proposes suggestions in four aspects, including normal university, student teachers, Primary and secondary schools and the administrative departments of education.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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