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基于言语活动理论的中学俄语活动课程研究

【作者】 常丽

【导师】 高凤兰;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 实践是人特有的存在方式,活动是认知发展的基础。作为是一种特殊的实践活动,言语活动通过主体和客体以及主体之间的双向建构,使人的言语发展得以实现。马克思辩证唯物主义实践认识论和建构主义的相互作用论对实践活动在人的认识中的作用问题早已经做了详细的论证。然而,由于我国俄语教育研究领域长期受到传统知识观念的影响,活动教育的思想没有得到应有的重视,中学俄语活动课程的价值和实施中促进人发展的内在机制没有得到科学的阐释,俄语活动课程的研究仍然处于刚刚起步的阶段。有些地区和学校中学俄语课程实施中灌输式教学和机械性操练成为了课堂教学的主要形式,基础教育俄语课程实施中还存在着许多亟待解决的问题。随着我国基础教育课程改革研究与实施的不断深化,以发展学生创新能力和主动精神的活动课程理念越来越受到人们的关注,强调学生主动参与的外语活动课堂教学改革已经成为基础教育课程改革的十分重要内容。作为现代新课程观念和方法论体系的综合,中学俄语活动课程与传统课程相比,它更加关注俄语学习的过程和方法,同时还要关注学生的情感体验以及动机激发等内部因素。中学俄语活动课程倡导教育及时挖掘学生发展的潜能,以保证活动教育理念的顺利实施。中学俄语活动课程充分体现了以人为本的教育思想,课堂教学要以培养学生自主探究和实践能力为重点,充分发挥学生的潜在能力。同时,活动课程强调必须以学生的发展水平和特点为依据,遵循个体发展规律,才能更好地促进学生的全面发展。本项研究基于俄罗斯言语活动理论的指导思想,在系统活动方法论的指导下,从言语活动的本体论和结构论出发、运用因素分析的方法探索了我国目前俄语活动课程实施现状、存在的问题及解决对策。研究内容涉及到了言语活动的生成机制、活动课程的结构要素以及言语活动理论指导下的中学俄语活动课程设计与评价等相关问题,论文共分为以下六个组成部分:第一部分:中学俄语活动课程的基础理论研究。主要运用哲学思辨和历史比较的科学方法,探讨了中学俄语活动课程的哲学、心理学以及教育学的理论渊源。指出了马克思辩证唯物主义的实践认识论和建构主义的相互作用论是活动课程理念的方法论原则。第二部分,俄罗斯言语活动的内涵及生成机制研究。从言语活动的方法论和本体论出发,分析和界定活动、言语活动及其相关概念。在此基础上进一步研究言语活动的特征及其生成机制,并提出言语活动生成过程中言语活动的机定向机制、概念形成机制以及内部言语与外部言语转换机制在言语发展过程中的重要作用。第三部分:中学俄语活动课程的内涵及其课程理念研究。主要从言语活动的结构论出发,分析并研究了中学俄语活动课程的内部结构特征及其运行要素,指出了中学俄语活动课程是指在教师指导下学生通过活动方式,自主地、能动地和创造性地进行俄语认知与实践的活动过程。第四部分:俄罗斯基础教育阶段外语活动课程体系及案例研究。本项研究立足于俄罗斯言语活动理论,探讨俄罗斯外语基础教育活动课程体系,并对俄罗斯基础教育中学活动课程的典型案例进行分析与评价,研究的宗旨是为后面的活动课程设计研究提供理论与实践方法的基本指导。第五部分:我国中学俄语活动课程实施的调查研究。本项研究采用量化研究和质化分析相结合的方法,一方面分析研究我国中学俄语活动课程实施的现状以及存在的问题。另一方面通过课堂观察、课堂实录等形式对存在的问题进行相关因素分析和回归分析。第六部分:我国中学俄语活动课程实施的设计构想。本项研究运用系统分析方法,依据俄罗斯言语活动的基本理论,借鉴先进的课程设计的理念,在我国义务教育阶段《俄语课程标准》的指导下,进行中学俄语活动课程的设计研究和构想,研究的宗旨是为推进中学俄语活动课程科学而有效的实施。

【Abstract】 Practice, as a way of existence, is characteristic of human beings. Activity serves as the basis for cognitive development. Speech act, which is special practice activity, makes human beings’speech development happen through a two-way construction between subject and object as well as between individuals and groups. As for this problem, we can find detailed argumentation in the practice epistemology of Marx’s dialectical materialism and interaction theory of constructivism. Activity is a significant mechanism of subjectivity generation and development, whereas, for the sake of long-time influences from the traditional concept of knowledge instruction, the importance of its idea has not gained enough attention which it should have got. Few researches into the value of activity curriculum and the internal mechanism about how the curriculum boosts human development have been conducted. And thus so far, no scientific explanations concerning them have been discovered. Cramming and rigid drill-oriented teaching are still prevalent in classroom teaching. Many issues remain to be addressed. We have not achieved much in the research on the activity-based curriculum.With the ever-developing elementary curriculum reform in China, the activity-based curriculum notions of cultivating students’ innovation and initiative are drawing increasing attention. The activity-based classroom teaching reform, focusing on students’participation, has been a crucial part of the elementary curriculum reform. Secondary school Russian activity-based curriculum (SSRAC thereafter) combines modern concepts of curriculum and methodology. Compared to the previous curriculum, the new curriculum concentrates more attention on the internal factors of emotion and motivation during Russian learning. It proposes that children’s latent potential should be fully tapped. Grounded on the idea of people oriented, it stresses that students are the subject of education. It also emphasizes that classroom teaching should concentrate on the development of students’abilities of autonomy and the practice in which students’ potential can be tapped. Meanwhile, it places particular emphasis on the necessity to follow the rule of individual development based on students’ phases of growth and their characteristics so as to promote their all-round development.This study, based on the idea of subject education of speech act, under the guidance of systematic activity methodology, starts from ontology and structure theory. Grounded on the methodology of factor analysis, it explores the problems of the Russian activity-based curriculum in China and makes an attempt to find the solution. It involves the generation mechanism of speech act, the structural features of activity-based curriculum, the design of the curriculum and the application and evaluation of SSRAC. This dissertation consists of six parts:Part One deals with the basic theory of SSRAC. Employing the methods of speculative philosophy and comparative history, this part discusses the theoretical origins of activity-based curriculum in philosophy, psychology and pedagogy. It puts forward that the practice epistemology of Marx’s dialectical materialism and interaction theory of constructivism should serve as the methodological principles of activity-based curriculum.Part Two mainly focuses on the research into the connotations and generation mechanism of speech act. With the structuralism of speech act as a starting point, this part analyses and studies the internal structural characteristics of SSRAC and its operation factors. And thus it points out the significance of motivation orientation mechanism of speech act in the construction of SSRAC.Part Three concerns the research into the connotations and notions of SSRAC. It is made up of two aspects. The first aspect covers the systematic planning of SSRAC based on the principle of goal orientation of the curriculum design. The second aspect, grounded on the principle of integrating theory and practice, argues that SSRAC can operate on the following three modes:the inquiry activity mode of concept acquisition, the experience activity mode of situated cognition and the autonomous cooperation mode of subject interaction.Part Four concentrates on the research into the system of Secondary school activity-based curriculum in Russia and a case study. Following the methodology of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, this part not only examines the current situation of SSRAC in China but also carries out a factor analysis of the problems by observing and recording classroom teaching.Part Five is about a survey of SSRAC. Following the methodology of systematic analysis, this paper formulates the concept of SSRAC development from the perspectives of students’development, curriculum construction, resource development, and guarantee system.Part Six is about the design and concept of puttingSSRAC into practice. Based on the basic speech act theory of Russia and the method of system analysis, this research focuses on the application and design of SSRAC in China. Drawing on the notions of Russia’s activity-based curriculum design, the research is conducted within the framework of China’s Russian Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education. It aims at promoting SSRAC and thus it can be put into effect in a scientific and effective way.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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