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民国时期美术人才培养研究

【作者】 姜殿坤

【导师】 王凌皓;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育史, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 20世纪上半叶,清末民初的中国经历了“数千年未有之变局”,随着封建王朝的解体与西学东渐,中国近代教育步入了由封闭走向开放的转型过程。民国时期,中国近代新式美术教育开始萌芽,中国美术人才培养开始了由传统向现代形态的艰难转型。民国时期,曾经是一个大师层出不穷的历史时期,在这个历史时期中国美术不断探索寻找新的发展空间和模式,在继承中国传统美术人才培养优长的过程中,西方培养体系中有借鉴意义的部分也被成功移植和本土化。可以说,民国时期是中国美术教育继往开来,取得重大突破性成果的黄金时期。论文以民国时期美术人才培养为主要研究对象,以教育学、美术学和历史学等学科交叉的视野,综合运用历史文献研究、比较研究和个案研究等研究方法,力求还原民国时期美术人才培养的历史面貌。论文围绕民国时期美术人才培养的理念、口标、方式方法和手段以及管理和评价机制等进行了深入系统的研究,而研究的核心目的是期望以民国时期美术人才培养的历史经验及教训为重要的历史镜鉴,为当下创新我国的美术人才培养提供历史智慧和参考。尽管当前的美术人才培养的环境、条件与民国时期已经迥然相异,但是,当前美术人才培养中所面临的问题,所要迎接的挑战却与民国时期有着诸多的相同点,民国时期美术人才培养中所体现的历史智慧和历史经验值得我们深思和学习。论文主体共分为七个部分,分别就民国时期美术人才培养的社会背景、民国时期美术人才培养的历史溯源、民国时期美术人才培养理念引领与目标驱动、民国时期美术人才培养体系与机制、民国时期美术课程体系的构建、民国时期的美术人才培养的方式与方法以及民国时期美术人才培养的经验教训及启示展开论述。论文在结语部分对民国时期的美术人才培养理念与目标、培养体系与师资、课程建设等方面的经验教训进行了总结概括。本文研究跨度是1912~1949年而重点研究的是1912~1937年间美术人才培养的经验、史实,特别探讨影响这一时期推动中国美术教育事业发展的主要因素,涉及到清末及民国时期杰出的教育家、思想家、美术家对美术教育的见解和思考,廓清民国时期美术教育发展的整体脉络,分析其主要特征,总结其经验,同时分析其历史局限性为当下我国美术教育理论创新和实践创新提供历史智慧。因此本文所侧重的重点在于民国时期与主流美术发展相适应的美术教育问题,而美术教育中所包含的美术人才培养则是重中之重,围绕民国时期美术人才培养的研究,有利于对中国近现代美术教育思想的和教育实践发展历程的厘清总结,并对我国当下的美术教育的创新性发展提供历史参照。虽然本文初衷为尽可能还原和再现民国时期美术教育发展的历史脉络、总结美术人才培养的经验,探求美术人才培养中所呈现的特殊规律性,但是局限于个人理论水平和客观规律呈现的复杂性,本论文还存在着众多不足,需在今后持续研究中努力改进。

【Abstract】 The first half of twentieth Century, the end of the Qing dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China (1912-1949) was facing the endless energetic reforms, in pace with the disintegration of the feudal dynasty and "the western culture spread to the east" trend, the modern fine art education began to make its first faint show, accordingly the Chinese fine art talent cultivation broke its own way from the traditional pattern to the modern forms. During a masters peopled in endlessly during 1912-1949, the Chinese fine art education was facing the transforming challenges from the traditional art to the modern art periods, trying to explore the new space and developmental method to inherit the advantages from the traditional fine art education and localize and reference the sparkles from the western fine art education. Therefore, the fine art education in the Republican Period took a huge success in the Chinese fine art education history ever since. The thesis studies the fine art talent cultivation in the Republic of China(1912-1949) as the main target, based on the pedagogy, fine arts and history disciplines, comprehensively applied with the historical literature study, the comparison study and the individual case-file study to restore the fine art education history itself. The thesis is focus on the further study of the fine art talent cultivation in the Republican Period on the idea, the target, the method, the means, the management and evaluate system. how the fine art education adapted with the mainstream fine art during the Republican Period is the key point of the thesis. Among the fine art education system the fine art talent cultivation is the priority, with the study carried on it would show strong impact to the modern fine art education, beneficial to the modern fine art education principles and practice and set a referential historical coordination for the present.The thesis will be revealed in these seven parts:the social background of the fine art education cultivation in the Republican Period; the history review of cultivation system of the fine art education in the Republican Period; the leading idea and the drives of the fine art talent cultivation; the system and mechanism of the fine art talent cultivation in the Republic of China(1912-1949); the professional curriculum system; the teaching principles and methods of the fine art major in the Republican Period and the experience and inspirations concluded from the fine art education in the Republican Period. The closure part is mainly concludes the lessons learned from the cultivation ideas and targets, cultivation system, faculties development, curriculum system, cultivation pattern etc. in the Republican Period. The thesis studies covered the period of 1912-1949, but the year from 1912-1937 is the essential part to focus on. The key core of the study is based on summary the experiences and historical facts from the fine art cultivation during the Republican Period, especially discuss about the main factors which had been promoted the whole Chinese fine art education industry in those days, such as the opinions and ideas from the remarkable educationists, thinkers, artists; cleared the overall context of the fine art education development; analyzed the features; conducted with the experiences, meantime to pointed out the historical limitations for the references and creations of the modem fine art education theory and practice. Therefore, how the fine art education adapted with the mainstream fine art during the Republican Period is the key point of the thesis. Among the fine art education system the fine art talent cultivation is the priority, with the study carried on it would show strong impact to the modem fine art education, beneficial to the modem fine art education principles and practice and set a referential historical coordination for the presentDue to the personal theoretical standard and the complexity of all the objective factors, the thesis wouldn’t be good enough to represent the whole historical context of the fine art education history development in the Republican Period, the experiences conclusion of the fine art talent cultivation, the exploration of the specialty principles of the fine art talent cultivation deeply and thoroughly. Those are the improvements need to be fulfill in the future studies.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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