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职前教师的采纳技术教学行为影响因素研究

【作者】 张哲

【导师】 王以宁;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育技术学, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 20世纪90年代以来,教育信息化作为教育发展的重要任务之一,在世界范围内得到大力推进。然而著名的“乔布斯之问”指出了世界性的教育信息化发展难题。它似乎告诉我们,尽管经历了数十年的发展,信息化教学所需的软硬件设备和资源环境已经基本建设完备,与之相匹配的教学方法体系和观念环境已经基本形成,但信息技术仍然没有在教育中发挥其应有的作用。面对此种情况,相关研究结果表明,教师作为教育活动的执行者,其对于已有信息技术的使用情况不理想是阻碍信息技术发挥作用的最重要因素。因此,探究导致教师在教学中使用信息技术情况不理想的原因成为解决“乔布斯之问”所蕴含的教育信息化难题的必由之路。而在具有相对“创新”属性的信息技术向已有悠久发展历史的教育系统扩散的过程中,信息技术的“创新”属性,使得教师在教学过程中对其采纳与接受需要经历一个非常复杂的过程。因此,探寻在教学过程中教师使用信息技术情况不甚理想的原因,需要对这个复杂的接受过程及影响这一过程的因素进行深入分析。综上所述,本研究以作为我国未来教师主要代表的职前教师为研究对象,在其完成三年职前教育全部课程,以“准教师”身份进行教育见习和教育实习期间,通过采用质化导向的个案研究和量化导向的实证研究相结合的混合研究方法,探究了职前教师的采纳技术教学行为的形成过程及影响因素。具体研究工作主要体现在以下几个方面:一、构建职前教师的采纳技术教学行为影响因素理论研究框架。由于信息技术相对传统教学方式的创新属性以及教师在教学活动中的特殊身份,本研究基于信息系统领域的个体技术接受理论、科技传播领域的创新扩散理论以及整合技术的学科教学知识理论,构建了职前教师的采纳技术教学行为形成过程模型,并基于此模型,提出了职前教师的采纳技术教学行为影响因素研究的理论框架。二、建立职前教师的采纳技术教学知识评价指标。掌握采纳技术教学的知识是职前教师形成采纳技术教学行为的起点。根据整合技术的学科教学知识(TPACK)理论对于教师知识结构的描述,可以看出本研究所构建的理论框架中的职前教师的采纳技术教学知识,即为其TPACK知识。而TPACK知识是一类结构化知识,对于此类结构化知识掌握情况的评价必须依据知识结构本身的特征。因此,本研究首先基于整合技术的学科教学知识理论,采用问卷调查方法,对职前教师TPACK知识结构中的七类知识元素水平进行测量,并对测量结果采用路径分析方法,构建职前教师TPACK知识结构路径分析模型。然后,以路径分析模型所体现的TPACK知识结构组成元素之间的结构与定量关系为依据,建立职前教师的采纳技术教学知识评价指标,对研究对象所具备的采纳技术教学知识水平进行评价。最后,根据评价结果,将研究对象分为高水平、中等水平和低水平三个组别,并在每组中选出知识水平最接近该组平均水平的研究对象作为本组的代表个案。三、职前教师的采纳技术教学行为影响因素个案研究。教师教学行为和课堂教学情境的双重不确定性,使得对于职前教师的采纳技术教学行为影响因素的研究,必须建立在深入课堂教学环境,了解教师教学行为的心理决策机制基础上。因此,本研究采用质化导向的个案研究,以根据采纳技术教学知识水平评价结果选出的三位职前教师为研究对象,采用访谈与观察相结合的研究方式,探究职前教师的采纳技术教学行为各类影响因素的具体含义及影响因素之间的结构关系。研究者针对采纳技术教学问题,分别对三个个案进行了教育见习后的访谈,教育实习中的观察和教育实习后的访谈。对于所收集的定性数据主要基于扎根理论进行了整理分析。四、职前教师的采纳技术教学行为影响因素实证研究。在个案研究中,尽管研究者通过对研究过程的设计尽量保证了研究的信度与效度,但通过个案研究所得研究结论是否能够反映个案所代表的职前教师群体的一般规律需要进一步验证。且个案研究结论仅描述了职前教师的采纳技术教学行为影响因素之间的定性关系,各类影响因素之间的定量关系如何同样需要进一步探究。因此,本研究以个案所在群体为研究对象,基于个案研究结论,通过问卷调查与结构方程模型相结合的实证研究,对个案研究结论的可推广性进行检验,同时探究职前教师的采纳技术教学行为各类影响因素之间的定量关系。在实证研究阶段,本研究首先根据个案研究得出的结论,构建职前教师的采纳技术教学行为影响因素理论假设模型。在此基础上,操作化模型中涉及到的相关变量,形成具有良好信度与效度的调查问卷,并以个案所在的群体为调查对象进行数据收集。对于所收集的有效数据,首先采用基于偏最小二乘法的结构方程模型进行分析,初步探索理论假设模型中提出的影响因素及其相互作用关系。根据模型探索的结果修正理论假设模型,并采用基于协方差最大似然估计的结构方程模型再次进行数据分析,最终得出职前教师的采纳技术教学行为各类影响因素及其结构与定量关系。五、研究结论与总结。在实证研究结论基础上,本研究结合个案研究所得结论,确定了能够影响职前教师的采纳技术教学行为各类因素的具体含义及相互影响作用。并基于此提出了通过创建合理的采纳技术教学的氛围、合理设置采纳技术教学相关课程以及提供充分的实践机会引导职前教师在教学中合理使用技术的三方面教师教育策略。本研究取得的研究成果,丰富了教师教育理论体系,发展了个体技术接受理论和创新扩散理论。且对于解决“乔布斯之问”所蕴含的我国教育信息化难题,具有一定的实践指导价值。

【Abstract】 As one of the most important tasks of education development, education informationalization has got increasing attention all over the world since 1990 s. The famous “the question of Jobs”told us, however, despite decades of development, information technology still does not play a proper role in education as expected, even though the fundamental equipment construction and instructional resources have been completed, relevant teaching method and ideological context have been basically formed.In such a case, teachers’ unwillingness to accept and apply the existing information technology is the most important factor which can hinder information technology’s performance in education. Therefore, exploring reasons why teachers don’t want to use information technology for instruction is a good way to solve education informatization puzzles behind “the question of Jobs”.To explore reasons mentioned above, it requires an in-depth analysis of the psychology decision process of teacher’s technology adopting teaching behavior. Because when new information technology diffuses to the traditional education system, the “innovation” attributes of information technology makes teacher go through a complicated psychology decision process to adopt technology in their teaching.To be specific, this study takes pre-service teachers, who are going to be new force of teaching, as the research object. It adopts mixed methods combining qualitative-oriented case study and quantitative-oriented empirical research, to explore factors that influence pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching behavior in educational practice. Specific research work is mainly reflected in the following aspects:1. Construction of research theoretical framework. Based on the five-stage Innovation-Decision Process model, Technology Acceptance related models, and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge theory, the “Model of Pre-service Teachers’ Technology Adopting Teaching Behavior” is built. And the research theoretical framework is also put forward based on the process model.2. Construction of pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching knowledge evaluation index. Mastering technology adopting teaching knowledge is the beginning of forming process of pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching behavior, and this kind of knowledge is the same with structured TPACK. According to Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge theory, the evaluation of the structured TPACK should be based on the knowledge structure of itself. Therefore this study, firstly, tests the level of seven types of knowledge in TPACK structure with a questionnaire, and builds path analysis model(PA-OV) to investigate the structural and quantitative relationship among these kinds of knowledge. And then, based on the TPACK PA-OV model, a pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching knowledge evaluation index is put forward to evaluate the knowledge level of the research objects. Finally, according to the knowledge evaluation results, all the research objects are divided into three groups, from which objects for the case study are chosen.3. Case study on pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching behavior influence factors. Due to the uncertainty of teachers’ teaching behavior and teaching context, pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching behavior influence factors study should be based on understanding teachers’ decision-making process and carried out in teaching environment. Thus, qualitative-oriented case study is adopted to find out the specific meaning for every factor that influences pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching behavior and the structural relationship among these influence factors. Qualitative date collection methods are observation and semi-structure interview. And the data analysis process is based on grounded theory.4. Empirical study on pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching behavior influence factors. Although the research design of the case study can mainly guarantee the reliability and validity of the conclusions, generalizability of them should be tested. In addition, the case study can only explain the qualitative relationship among these factors. Thus, the quantitative-oriented empirical study is used too. In the empirical study, firstly, “Theory Model of Pre-service Teachers’ Technology Adopting Teaching Behavior Influence Factors” is built based on the results of case study. Then, according to the theory model, a good reliability and validity questionnaire is designed to test the research objects. As to the data analysis method, both PLS-SEM and CB-SEM are used to investigate the structural and quantitative relationship among variables in the model. PLS-SEM is used to modify the theory model, and CB-SEM is used to confirm the modified model. Finally, according the CB-SEM analysis results, pre-service teachers’ technology adopting teaching behavior influence factors and the structural and quantitative relationship among the factors are obtained.5. Research conclusion. The research conclusion is summarized by combining the results of case study and empirical study. And three intervention strategies for promoting pre-service teachers technology adopting teaching behavior are put forward, including creating a reasonable atmosphere, setting up reasonable courses, and providing adequate practice opportunities.The findings of this study can further develop the teacher education technology theory, technology acceptance model and innovation diffusion theory, and, practically, helpful to solve education informationalization puzzles behind “the question of Jobs”.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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