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幼儿园课程意义生成研究

【作者】 魏卿

【导师】 虞永平;

【作者基本信息】 南京师范大学, 学前教育学, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 本研究以文献法、观察法和思辨法为主要研究方法,从意义的视角观照幼儿园课程实践,讨论了幼儿园课程意义的内涵、层次和基本特性,分析了实践中幼儿园课程意义面临的困境和原因,探讨了幼儿园课程意义的生成机制。在借鉴各哲学派别关于意义问题的研究成果的基础上,本研究认为幼儿园课程意义是幼儿园课程主体与人、事、物、观念等相互作用所生成的关系,是幼儿园活动本身和活动中诸要素与各类课程主体间的相互指向性。幼儿是幼儿园课程意义的核心主体。幼儿园课程意义可以分为四个层次:一是活动材料、内容和活动本身所表达的含义;二是利用活动材料、内容和活动本身来表达意义的教师的原意和意思;三是活动材料、内容和活动本身作为意义的显示物所体现出的相关活动情境;四是活动材料、内容和活动本身所具有的对幼儿的影响、作用和价值。同时,幼儿园课程意义具有情境性、生成性、过程性、差异性和丰富性等特性。在幼儿园课程实践中,幼儿园课程意义常常处于困境之中,主要表现在幼儿园课程意义模糊化、幼儿园课程意义在活动过程中断裂、幼儿园课程意义生成不畅。造成这些困境的原因主要有:幼儿园课程意义生成缺乏教师的专业支持,人们对幼儿园学与教的误读,传统知识观对幼儿园课程实践的束缚,幼儿园课程实践中“人”的缺失。要让幼儿园课程意义走出困境,首先需要探明它的生成机制。从幼儿的角度来看,幼儿以自己生活为生成的源泉,已有经验为生成的基础,在情境脉络中,通过活动生成幼儿园课程意义。从教师的角度来看,教师既要在活动方案设计时考虑幼儿在活动中可能获得的经验,给予幼儿建构意义的机会,让幼儿成为活动方案设计的重要参与者;也要创设适宜的活动情境,信任幼儿的能力,尊重幼儿的时间体验和活动节奏,按照适宜性、目的性、丰富性、层次性的原则提供有效的活动材料;还要在幼儿活动时给予恰切的指导,关注幼儿活动的方向,为幼儿布题,给幼儿留出思考、想象、创作的空白,在教师和幼儿的共同活动中进行指导,保障幼儿园课程意义的生成。

【Abstract】 The dissertation examines the practices of kindergarten curriculum from the perspective of meaning by use of literature method, observation method and speculative method. The Dissertation discusses the implication, levels and basic features of meanings of kindergarten curriculum, and analyses its dilemma and reasons in practice as well as its mechanism of generation.Based on the researches of meaning by various philosophic schools, the dissertation argues that the meaning of kindergarten curriculum is the relationship resulted by the interaction between subject and persons, things, objects, ideas, etc. and it is also the mutual intentionality of kindergarten activities themselves and all its elements of activities to various subjects of curriculum. Early children are their core subject. The meaning of kindergarten curriculum can be categorized into four levels: the first is the meaning embodied in activity materials, content and activities themselves; the second is the meaning teachers intended to express through activity materials, content and activities themselves; the third levels is the related curriculum context indicated by activity materials, content and activities themselves as signifier of meaning; the fourth is the impact, role and value on early children by activity materials, content and activities themselves. The meaning of kindergarten curriculum is characterized by contextuality, generativeness, procedurality, diversity, enrichment and so on.In the practice of kindergarten curriculum, the meaning of kindergarten curriculum often is caught in dilemma, which mainly show itself in the facts that its meaning is blurred; its meaning is disrupted in the processes of activities; the generation of early child’s meaning of kindergarten curriculum is not smooth. The reasons causing these dilemma include:the lack of teacher’s professional support, misunderstanding of learning and teaching in kindergarten by people, constraint on kindergarten curriculum practice by traditional views of knowledge, the absence of "human" in kindergarten curriculum practice.It is firstly required to explore its mechanism of generation in order to emancipate the meaning of kindergarten curriculum from the dilemma. From the perspective of early children, the meanings of kindergarten curriculum are generated through their experiencing activities in proper context. In this process, early children take their lives as the basis of generation and prior experience as the source of generation. From the perspective of teachers, they should consider the experiences that early children acquire in the process when they design the activities; they should create proper context for activities, entrust children’s capabilities and respect their time experience and rhythm of activities. Teachers also should provide effective activity materials according to the principals of feasibility, intentionality, enrichment, hierarchy. Moreover, they should provide proper guide for children’s activities, concern about the direction of children’s activities, pose questions for children and leave early children "the blank" for thinking, imagination and creation. Besides, teachers should provide guide in activities simultaneously engaged teachers and children to make sure the meaning of kindergarten curriculum could be generated.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 南京师范大学
  • 【分类号】G612
  • 【下载频次】635
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