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初中数学课堂师生互动特点比较研究 ——基于新手教师与专家教师的个案研究

【作者】 过燕晶

【导师】 宁连华;

【作者基本信息】 南京师范大学, 数学教育, 2017, 硕士

【副题名】基于新手教师与专家教师的个案研究

【摘要】 随着教育改革的不断深入,课堂研究已经成为教育研究者的热点课题.而采用将质性研究与量化研究相结合的方法进行课堂研究,可以客观地反应课堂的教学情况,对课堂教学有着重要的意义.研究以“课堂录像——课堂教学文字实录分析——师生互动行为编码—新手教师与专家教师课堂师生互动特点个案比较研究——专家教师新授课与复习课师生互动特点比较研究——得出结论”为基本模式.研究以课堂师生互动行为为中心,充分综述并分析已有的相关研究,以弗兰德互动分析系统(FIAS)为基础,结合中学数学课堂的特点和现代探究式课堂教学的新要求编制了数学课堂师生互动分析量表.并以初中数学课堂教学为样本,借助课堂录像、课堂观察、改进的弗兰德互动分析量表分别对初中数学新手教师与专家教师新授课师生互动行为,以及专家教师新授课与复习课师生互动行为进行了个案比较研究,系统的分析了初中数学课堂师生互动的情况.及针对发现的问题,深入反思,提出了改进建议,希望能为数学课堂研究提供参考.本研究主要获得了以下结论:1.专家教师在课堂中表达情感、鼓励表扬、采纳学生意见的次数多于新手教师,更多地运用提问、鼓励等方式展示课堂教学内容,激发学生主动学习的意识,对学生积极影响高于消极影响.2.专家教师的课堂提问次数多于新手教师,且专家教师的元认知提问次数多于一般性提问,注重启发、引导学生思考,而新手教师则是一般性提问次数多于元认知提问,更容易对学生缺乏耐心,提问后频频催促学生回答,留给学生的思考时间不足.3.学生的被动反应多于主动反应,且新手教师提问后学生被动反应程度高于专家教师提问后学生被动反应程度,学生质疑提问的次数也明显少于专家教师的课堂.而且专家教师在教学过程中能适时运用“暗示教学法”,使得教师与学生之间的互动相对增加,学生的注意力也更多的集中于教师讲课的内容,新手教师在这方面的教学能力则相对薄弱.4.新手教师与专家教师在复习课均主要采用强化型的讲授方式,更加注重学生的自主探索,体现教师主导,学生主体的作用,而在新授课则主要采用教师铺垫、理解型讲授方式,注重新知的讲解;另外,专家教师在新授课和复习课中都是元认知提问次数多于一般性提问,表明专家教师在教学中较注重元认知提示语的运用.

【Abstract】 With the deepening of education reform, study on classroom has become a hot topic for education researchers. And adopting the method that combining qualitative research and quantitative research in classroom can reflect classroom teaching situation objectively, is of great significance to the classroom teaching.Our research adopt the following basic model, "watching the classroom teaching video——analyzing the classroom text transcript——coding the interaction between teachers and students——comparing the classroom teacher-students interactive features between novice and expert teachers——comparing the classroom teacher-students interactive features of expert teacher between new and review lessons——making conclusion".Our research focus on the classroom interaction between teachers and students, recalling and analyzing the existing related research adequately, and based on the Flanders interaction analysis system (FIAS), moreover, according to the features of the middle school mathematics classroom and the new requirement of modern inquiry-based classroom teaching, we create the analysis scale for mathematics classroom interaction. In addition, we obtain the research sample from the mathematics classroom teaching of junior middle school, using teaching video, classroom observation and the modified interaction analysis scale of Flanders, to compare the classroom teaching features between novice and expert teacher, and to compare the features of teacher-students interaction between the new and review lesson of expert teacher respectively. Through finding problems constantly, reflecting in-depth and putting forward the improve Suggestions, we hope that our research can provide useful help for mathematics classroom studyThis research is mainly to obtain the following conclusions:1. The expert teachers pay more attention to express emotion, encourage and praise for students than novice teachers in the classroom teaching, and use more questions to teach the new contents, those practice can arouse the learning consciousness of student actively, and generate impact on students positively than negatively.2. The expert teacher use more questions than novice teachers, and use meta-cognitive questions more than general questions in classroom teaching, they pay more attention to inspire and guide the students to think about, while the novice teachers use more general question than meta-cognitive questions, and more easily to lack of patience to students, they always urge the students to answer questions, and does not give insufficient for students to think about.3. The students’ reaction in classroom are more passive than active, and the degree of passive reaction in classroom of novice teachers are more than that in expert teachers, moreover, the number of students questioned actively in classroom are also obvious less than that of expert teachers. Expert teacher can timely apply "suggested teaching method" in the teaching process, which makes the interaction between teachers and students relative increase, and make the students pay more attention to focus on the teaching content, while the novice teachers’have relatively weak ability for this aspect.4. Expert teachers review the lessons mainly with strengthen method, and they are pay more attention to explore autonomously by students, which can reflect the main role of students and the guide role of teachers in classroom. However, in the process of new lessons’ teaching, expert teacher always adopt the method with bedding and understanding, and focus on the teaching by teacher. In addition, expert teachers are good at using meta-cognitive questions in the process of teaching, which shows that expert teachers pay more attention to the use of meta cognitive clues.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 南京师范大学
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