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中学生化学学习归因研究

【作者】 张四方

【导师】 李广洲;

【作者基本信息】 南京师范大学, 课程与教学论(化学), 2017, 博士

【摘要】 学习归因是化学学习认知研究的重要内容之一,它为学习者提供了利用过去学习经验指导当前学习行为的机制,会直接影响到学生的认知、情绪、动机和行为发生连锁反应,进而影响到随后的化学学习活动和学业成就。但是,纵观学习归因理论研究,目前国内化学教育领域对学习归因结构研究相当匮乏,已有研究对化学学习行为和结果认知的解释效应不足;从实践研究来看,化学学习归因实证研究也才刚刚起步,并停留在归因效果的验证性层面,缺乏具有学科知识丰富领域特征、符合国情和中学化学教学实际的科学、系统的理论指导。因此,本研究在综合国内外文献研究基础上,首次从学科层面探讨学习归因的结构问题,通过引入“意向性”和“使能”构造成分,尝试对中学生化学学习归因结构进行探查,并在此基础上较深入地探讨学习归因结构与学习策略、学业成就等认知变量的影响机制和作用关系,以此增强了对中学生化学学习归因现象的理论解释力,同时也是对国内化学学习归因结构研究不足的推进。本研究主要基于理论思辨和量化研究的研究范式展开,通过自编和修编的《中学生化学学习归因结构测量问卷》进行数据收集、修订工作,同时结合SPSS等统计软件对数据进行信度和效度检验;运用结构方程模型,结合多种统计方法对化学学习归因结构进行模型拟合和检验分析;在此基础上,运用正式修编定型的《中学生化学学习归因结构测量问卷》对化学学习策略的作用机制进行全模型分析、对化学学习策略、化学学习能力、化学学业成就变量之间的作用机制和影响路径进行了较为深入检验和分析。本研究主要的研究结论如下:1.中学生化学学习归因结构。中学生化学学习归因是一个具有学科特征的、复杂的多维认知系统,主要包括五个维度的认知成分,分别是使能认知、学科特定自我概念认知、学科情境认知、学科人际认知和学科策略认知,是一个相互独立的一阶结构模型,它们共同指导着化学学习行为及其结果的价值判断。与日常归因相比,化学学习归因的认知结构具有学科性、主观性、目标性等更多功能属性。2.中学生化学学习归因能力概况总体上水平较为先进,均在中等水平以上,但各个构造成分的倾向性有所不同。在学习归因结构能力表征上,学生的情境认知水平相对较低,而策略认知水平相对较高。(1)中学生化学学习归因结构性别上并不存在结构差异,男生略优于女生,尤其在人际认知归因成分上,男生的归因认知更为成熟;(2)中学生化学学习归因结构年级间存在显著差异,尤其表现在学科自我认知、学习策略认知成分上。高一年级的学科认知归因最为突出,而进入高二年级降低到最低;在策略认知归因结构层面,高一水平最低,高三得分最高。总体而言,中学生化学学习归因结构呈现出先下降后上升趋势,初三、高一为化学学习归因最为矛盾、复杂和冲突阶段。(3)中学生化学学习归因结构学校类型间不存在显著差异。虽然重点学校学生各维度归因认知比普通学校略优,但差异并不显著。由此说明中学生化学学习归因现状的普遍性和重要性。3.中学生化学学习归因结构对化学学习策略的作用机制。(1)使能归因成分对化学学习元认知策略存在显著影响,具有负向预测作用。学生对化学学习过程中经历的挫折的体验愈加强烈、对成功的渴望和意愿愈加强烈,对后续的化学学习中的元认知策略的影响越单一绝对化,强度较大但灵活性偏弱。(2)学科特定自我概念归因成分对化学学习认知策略存在显著影响,具有正向预测作用。学生“学科认知”能力越强,学生越容易根据学科的这种特质对学习内容进行组织、精加工和联结学习,由表面的意义学习逐渐进入到“有意义”的学习层次,从而发展学习能力、提高学习水平,激发持续学习化学的动力。(3)情境归因认知特质对化学学习元认知策略存在显著影响,具有正向预测作用。化学学习中学生对学习情境的趣味性、直观性、感受性等的归因认同越强烈,则其在化学学习中的元认知策略的使用上能力越强,情境在一定程度上充当了元认知策略的诱因,能引导学生元认知策略的持续有效进行。(4)策略归因认知特质对化学学习认知策略、社会策略存在显著影响,具有正向预测作用。中学生化学学习归因结构中的“策略认知”构造对“认知策略”和“社会策略”水平越高,学生越能充分认识到化学学习中认知策略的重要性,从而根据化学学习内容适时调节学习策略,并能充分借助网络、教师等其他社会求助策略促进化学学习。(5)化学学习归因中“人际认知”因素变量在研究中没有得到关系模型支持。这是因为学生对“人际”的认知常常处于学习中的一种非理性状况,因此人际认知因素变量仍需要在更为广阔的关系模型中进行深入探究。(6)化学学习归因中认知策略、元认知策略、社会策略间存在显著性影响。他们之间存在着两种影响路径,分别是认知策略→元认知策略→社会策略的单向影响路径,另一条是从社会策略→元认知策略的反向影响路径,它们互相作用、互相联系,共同支撑着中学生化学学习的不断进行。4.中学生化学学习归因结构与学习策略、学习能力、学业成就间作用机制研究。(1)学习归因对学习策略、学习能力有显著直接影响和正向预测功能,对学业成就间接显著影响。中学生的学习归因认知结构水平越高,其在化学学习中的策略应用水平越高,越能充分运用认知、元认知、社会等学习策略共同促进学习发展;而学习能力的水平发展能达到最佳效果,以最大程度地促进学生学习能力的提升;同时,学习归因与学业成就之间并不存在直接显著影响,学习归因是通过学习能力、学习策略为中介而对学业成就产生显著影响。(2)学习能力对学习策略、学业成就有显著直接影响和正向预测功能。化学学习能力作为衡量学生化学学习发展水平的重要指标,与学习策略、学业成就都存在直接显著影响,同时学习能力还以学习策略为中介,对学生的化学学业成就产生间接影响。(3)学习策略对学业成就有显著直接影响和正向预测功能。学习策略是学习能力的表现形式之一,在充当能力“中介“影响因素的同时,其也对化学学业成就具有显著的直接影响。学习策略对学业成就的正向影响路径系数达到了0.516,学习归因和学习能力在“学习策略”因素总变差中可解释的占比高达88.1%,而归因、策略、能力对学业成就总变差的解释占比高达68.4%。

【Abstract】 The research of learning attribution is a key research issue of chemistry learning, which provides the theoretical mechanism of using the past experience to guide the learning behavior, and directly affects the chain reactions of the learners’cognition, emotion, motive, ultimately to affect students-subsequent learning activities and academic achievement So far, the theory research on students-attributional structure has almost no attention been paid in domestic chemistry learning research. And there is a lack of explanation consistency for the students-chemistry learning cognition between learning behaviors and learning outcomes. From the point of practice level, the research of chemistry learning attribution particularly lack of systematic theoretical guidance which according with the actual national and schools-conditions. The practical research of learning attribution has just started, and stay on the verification of attribution effect. Therefore, this research attempts to explore the attributional structure of chemistry learning through the introduction of "intention" and "enabling factor" psychological traits, and then accompanied by a more deeply exploring the Psychological mechanism between the attribution structure, learning strategies, learning ability and the academic achievement, which in order to enhance the explanatory power of middle school students’chemistry learning attribution theory, and to promote the research on chemical learning attribution structure.This research is based on the research methods of theoretical speculation and quantitative research methods. In this paper, the self-made Middle School Chemistry Students Learning Attribution Structure System Scale (CSLAS) are used for data collection firstly, and combined with SPSS statistical software for the reliability and validity analysis. Then with the use of Structural Equation Model (SEM), the modification fitting and reliability-validity analysis have been implemented to evaluate the chemistry learning attribution structure. Finally, we conduct the full model analysis between the middle school students’ chemistry learning attribution structure and chemistry learning strategies, and with a more in-depth exploration of the psychological mechanism on how the students attribution structure affect chemistry learning strategies and chemical learning ability and chemistry achievements in middle school chemistry learning with the formal scale of CSLAS.The main research conclusions are as follows:1. The structure system of middle school students-chemistry learning attributionThe students’chemistry learning attribution structure system is a complex cognitive system and an independent first-order structure model, which consists of five sub-systems about attribution cognition including enabling-factor cognition, discipline specific self-concept, discipline situation cognition, interpersonal perception and disciplines strategy cognition.The five sub-systems guide the value judgment on chemistry learning, and have more functions such as disciplinary, subjective and objective attribution comparing with the daily attribution.2. The overall performance of chemistry students’ attribution structure system is tend to be advanced and all above the average level. But the trend and level of each sub-system is different Comparatively, discipline situation cognition is relatively low, and strategy of cognitive level is relatively high.(1) The level of middle school students’ chemistry learning attribution structure does not exist significant differences between the sexs, boys were slightly better than girls, and have more sophisticated attribution cognition Especially on interpersonal perception than girls.(2) The students’ chemistry learning attribution structure has a significant effect on the students, grade, especially in the discipline specific self-concept and disciplines strategy cognition sub-system. The Senior One students have the most sophisticated attribution cognition on the discipline specific self-concept, and the lowest in Senior One; And in the attribution aspects of disciplines strategy cognition, the senior three students show the best performance, the senior one students is actually just the opposite. Overall, the middle school students’ chemistry learning attribution structure showing a fist rising trend after fall, the junior grade three and senior one are in the most contradiction, complexity and conflict stage.(3)The students’chemistry learning attribution structure does not exsit a significant effect on the school type, although the key school students show a more sophisticated cognition on chemistry learning attribution than the ordinary school. It just illustrates that the students-chemistry learning attribution is an universal and importantant phenomenon3. The students’ chemistry learning attribution structure affects on students’ learning strategy in chemistry learning:(1)The enabling-factor cognition about learning attribution can exerts a significant and negative prediction effect on students’ meta-cognitive strategies. The more stronger that students feel to failure, desire for success, the influence that learning attribution affects students’meta-cognitive strategies is more absolutely and singly, and has showed a more stronger intensity and weaker flexibility to students’ meta-cognitive strategies.(2) The discipline specific self-concept cognition about learning attribution has a significant effect and a positive prediction on students-cognitive strategies. The more sophisticated the cognition about the discipline specific self-concept, the stronger cognitive ability in organization, refinement, linkage-learning they have, the more easier transformation from rote-learning to meaningful-learning for the students. And to prompt they to develop learning ability and to inspire continuous learning motivation learning.(3)The discipline situation cognition about learning attribution has a significant effect and a positive prediction on students-meta-cognitive strategies. The stronger identity to attribution of situation, intuitive and sensibility that students have, the stronger ability in the use of metacognitive strategy ability in chemistry learning. The situation cognition about learning attribution acts as triggers to meta-cognitive strategy and can guide students’meta-cognitive strategy effectively.(4)The disciplines strategy cognition about learning attribution has a significant effect on students’cognitive strategies and social strategies. The more sophisticated cognition about disciplines strategy, the stronger cognitive strategies and social strategies ability they have during the chemistry learning and learning attribution When students have the more ability of disciplines strategy cognition, they can fully realize the importance of cognitive strategy i with the aid of network, teachers and other social appeal strategy to promote learning chemistry.(5)The Students-cognition about interpersonal perception does not show a significant effect on other variables in this research It is supposed that the students’ awareness of interpersonal perception is often an irrational in the learning situation, and stffl need in the wider relationship model for further exploration.(6)The middle school chemistry learning attribution system has a significant effect on students-cognitive strategies, meta-cognitive strategies and social strategies. There are two kinds of influence path between them, respectively is the cognitive strategies →metacognitive strategies →social strategies influence path, the other one is social strategies→ meta-cognitive strategy path, they interact with each other and support the ongoing middle school students’ chemistry learning.4. Middle school students’ chemistry learning attribution structure system effects on learning strategy, learning ability, academic achievement:(1) Learning attribution has a significant direct effect and positive prediction on students’ chemistry learning strategy, teaming ability, and have an indirect significant effect on academic achievement. The more sophisticated the ability about learning attribution, the stronger strategy ability they have, can make more full use of cognitive, metacognitive and social learning strategies to promote the development of chemistry learning; At the same time, there is not a significant direct effect between learning attribution and academic achievement, it shows that learning attribution acts for mediation to affect significantly on students’ learning ability, learning strategies and academic achievement.(2)Learning ability has a significant direct effects on learning strategies and academic achievement, and has a positive prediction. Chemistry learning as an important index to evaluate the level of students’ chemistry learning development, can exert a significant direct effects on learning strategies and academic achievement; At the same time, learning ability act for a mediation in learning strategies, and have an indirect effects on students’ chemistry achievements.(3) There is a significant effect between students’ chemistry learning strategy and their academic achievements, and chemistry learning strategy have positive prediction on academic achievements. Learning strategy not only is one of the forms but also and an agent of students’ learning ability, can exert a significant direct effect to the chemistry achievements. The path coefficient between learning strategies and academic achievement can reach 0.516, and learning attribution and learning ability can explain the total learning strategies variation of proportion is as high as 88.1%, and learning attribution,learning strategy and learning ability can explain the total learning strategies variation of academic achievment is as high as 68.4%.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 南京师范大学
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