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中学生历史意识建构研究

【作者】 徐赐成

【导师】 赵亚夫;

【作者基本信息】 陕西师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 历史教育是在历史知识的学习、生产和传播过程中,通过沟通个人与社会、历史与现实,从而完善人格修养、涵养人文素养、培育公民能力,进而服务人生发展和促进社会健康的学习实践活动。历史意识是关于主体与过去、现实与未来之间关系的集合及其价值判断和方法确认,历史教育的根本任务是帮助学生建构自己的历史意识,历史学习的本质在于建构科学的历史意识。国际历史教学界在最近四十余年里,始终把历史意识研究作为现代历史教育、教学的核心课题。历史意识与历史教育相辅相成,却又深隐于具体的教学实践之中,以至于教学难题的解决过程往往忽略它的存在,有教学无教育的历史课堂并未因持久性的争论而改变,原因即在于此。因此,历史学习应该以历史意识建构为中心,通过具体的教学实践,诱导中学生历史意识的发生,引导其历史意识建构,促进其历史意识的体认,这是历史教育和历史教学的本质规定性。本文共分七个部分,即绪论、结论各一,以及本论五章。绪论由四部分组成。“选题缘由”聚焦于教科书、历史教学研究和历史课堂教学实践三个问题纷争点,引出选题及其理论意义和实践价值。在“研究回顾”部分,从理论和实践两方面探讨为什么历史意识研究得以成立,以及该研究应有的立脚点。“相关概念解析”部分对“历史认识”、“历史理解”与“历史意义”等概念及其关系做了讨论,藉以促进对“历史意识”的理解。“研究的思路和方法”简要陈述了本研究的基本途径、方法和研究重点。第一章“历史意识及其学习价值”,在梳理“历史意识”相关研究成果的基础上,得出了“历史意识是对历史与现实关系的认知”的初步结论,并从历史学习的角度,初步解释了“历史意识”的内容和结构,进而明确了“历史意识”的教育功能和学习价值。第二章“以历史意识建构为中心的历史学习”,以教育心理学和学习科学理论为基础,在讨论影响历史学习的基本因素及其作用的基础上,分析了学生历史学习动机的价值和运用问题。文章认为学生历史意识的建构是以有质量的历史学习为途径的,而有质量的历史学习应以历史意识建构为目的和追求。第三章“中学生历史意识的发生”,主要从“教学设计”、“教学方法”和“教科书”等角度,讨论学生历史意识产生问题。这里主要基于心理学基本知识,立足于历史教学实践的重要环节,讨论历史教学怎样激发、促进和引导学生历史意识的发展。强调学生历史意识建构需要积极的教学设计和实践,从而促进和提升其活动质量和水平。基于“以学生为中心”的教学理念,重点探讨以历史意识建构为中心的历史教学设计的理论基础、科学流程、方法策略和主要误区。第四章“中学生历史意识的建构”,从历史学科课程论、知识论、方法论三方面讨论中学生历史意识的建构问题。“历史知识与历史意识的建构”根据知识分类法,具体说明不同知识类型与历史意识存在怎样的建构可能;“历史理解与历史意识建构”基于以理解为中心的学科教学理念,认为沟通与理解是建构历史意识的一般方法;情感和态度,则是历史意识建构的重要途径和价值体现。第五章“中学生历史意识的体认”,旨在通过教学现场所呈现的实例,透析历史教学的显性和隐性问题。显性问题即常规性、习惯性抑或是典型性、普遍性的教学问题,本研究主要通过课例分析,从教学互动、问题解决、史料解读等问题中分析历史意识培养的现状,并辨析其间的关系,以便找准学生能否建构历史意识的事实性依据。隐性问题则是被忽略、被隐瞒抑或是看不清、抓不住的问题,诸如情感、态度、信仰等问题。这些问题与历史意识的发生、建构,不仅直接相关,往往还更为真实、持久。这些问题的解决及其教学实践,需要研究者、实施者和管理者的共同回应,并统一于历史意识的培养和建构过程中。“结论”是对本文的总结。着眼于对有智慧的历史教学的认识,把建构历史意识视为历史教学的核心动力,强调历史意识建构是一个自主、积极的学习过程,也是一个历史智慧的生成和积极自我建构的过程。有效历史教学的本质是有助于学生的历史意识建构的学习过程。本研究力求理论联系实际,从实践中发现问题,再把理论运用到实践中解决问题。希望这是一个有益的尝试。

【Abstract】 History education is a study practice to enhance personality, cultivate humanities ability and foster civic competence that serves life development and promotes social health in the process of studying, producing and spreading history knowledge by connecting individuals with society, history with reality. Historical consciousness is a relation set concerning subject and past, reality and future, and its significance judgment and method identification. The basic task of history education is to help students construct their own historical consciousness. The nature of history learning is to construct scientific historical consciousness. Over the past four decades, the international history teaching field has regarded historical consciousness study as the core subject of modern history education and teaching.Historical consciousness and history education complement each other. However, it has been so concealed that it has been ignored while we were solving difficult teaching problems. History classes without education have not been changed because of durable dispute. Therefore, history learning should be centered on historical consciousness construction and evoke the occurrence of middle school students’ historical consciousness, lead the construct of their historical consciousness and promote the realization of their historical consciousness by specific teaching practice, which is the nature of history education and history teaching.This paper is divided into seven chapters composed of "introduction", "conclusion" and five chapters of main body.Introduction consists of four sections. "The reason of topic selection" focuses on three dispute points—history textbook, history teaching and history class—to introduce the topic and its theoretical and practical significance. "’Literature review" section discusses why historical consciousness research is reasonable from theoretical and practical aspects and the research’s foothold. "Related concepts" section discusses the concepts of "history cognition", "history understanding", "history significance" and their relations to promote the understanding of "historical consciousness". "Research structure and methodology" section briefly introduces the approach, methods and important points of this study.Chapter One "Historical consciousness and its learning significance" draws a preliminary conclusion that historical consciousness is the cognition to the relation of history and reality on the basis of reviewing the related research results about historical consciousness and gives a preliminary explanation of the content and structure of historical consciousness and further makes clear the educational function and learning significance of historical consciousness.Chapter Two "History learning centered on historical consciousness construct" discusses the basic factors influencing history learning and their functions on the basis of educational psychology and learning scientific theory, and analyzes values and stimulation of students’ history learning motivation. The paper holds that history learning with high quality is the way to construct students’ historical consciousness. In turn, construct of students’ historical consciousness is the purpose and pursuit of history learning with high quality.Chapter Three "Occurrence of historical consciousness of middle school students" discusses the occurrence of students’ historical consciousness from the perspectives of teaching design, teaching method and teaching text. The study discusses how history teaching motivates, stimulates and instructs development of students’ historical consciousness on the basis of the basic knowledge of psychology and important sections of history teaching practice. The study also emphasizes that students’ historical consciousness construct requires positive teaching design and practice to promote and enhance the quality and level of its activities. Based on the "students-centered" teaching philosophy, the chapter focuses on the theoretical basis, scientific process, methods and strategies and major errors of history teaching design on the basis of historical consciousness construct.Chapter Four "Historical consciousness construct of middle school students" discusses historical consciousness construct of middle school students from curriculum, epistemology, methodology in the discipline of history. "Construct of historical knowledge and historical consciousness" adopts a method of knowledge clarification to explain the construct possibilities between different knowledge types and historical consciousness. "History understanding and historical consciousness construct" maintains that communications and understandings are the general method of historical consciousness construct, and emotions and attitudes are the significant approach and value reflection of historical consciousness construct on the basis of understanding-centered teaching philosophy.Chapter Five "Realization of middle school students’ historical consciousness" aims to analyze the explicit and implicit problems in history teaching by the cases from the teaching progress. The explicit problems refer to the routine, habitual or typical, universal questions in teaching. This study analyzes the present situation of historical consciousness cultivation through analyzing cases from teaching process in interaction, problem solution, and interpretation of historical materials and discriminates their relations to identify the factual basis of whether students could construct historical consciousness. The implicit problems refer to problems that are ignored and concealed or not made clear or found, such as emotions, attitudes and beliefs. These problems not only are directly linked to the occurrence and construct of historical consciousness, but also tend to be more real and durable. The settlements of these problems and their teaching practice need to be responded by researchers, implementers and managers together and unified in the process of the cultivation and construct of historical consciousness."Conclusion" is a summary of this paper. Focusing on the understanding of the history teaching with wisdom, the author regards historical consciousness construct as the core motivation of history teaching and emphasizes historical consciousness construct is a process of independent and positive learning, a process of the generation of historical wisdom and a process of positive self-construct. The nature of effective history teaching is a learning process that benefits the construct of students’ historical consciousness.This study seeks to integrate theory with practice, identify problems from practice, and then put the theory into practice to solve problems. The author hopes this is a beneficial attempt.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 陕西师范大学
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