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小学数学课堂提问的多维分析与教学建议

【作者】 王悦

【导师】 罗新兵;

【作者基本信息】 陕西师范大学, 课程与教学论(数学), 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 课堂提问作为一种重要的教学手段和教学方式有着悠久的历史,并在现代课堂教学中被频繁使用。随着课改的深入,越来越多的教育工作者和研究者发现,课堂提问对于组织活泼生动的教学活动、培养学生良好的学习习惯及提高学生学习效率都有重要的作用。通过分析已有的研究,笔者发现我国目前关于课堂提问的研究大多集中于对教师提问技巧、提问方式、提问频率等方面的探讨,缺乏结合具体学科课堂提问的研究,也没有针对不同学段学生课堂学习的特征加以区分,因此结论较为宽泛笼统。为了使课堂提问研究的结论更加丰富和有针对性,笔者选取具体的小学学段数学课堂上的提问活动进行深入全面的研究,并将课堂提问所关注的主体从教师拓展到教师和学生群体。笔者首先在绪论部分探讨了选题的背景和意义,在第2章文献综述部分介绍了国内外数学课堂提问方面的相关研究成果和存在的不足,为文章的主干部分的研究做准备。本文的主干部分是第3章小学数学课堂的多维分析和第4章小学数学课堂提问的教学建议,在第5章反思与展望部分对全文进行总结和概括。笔者通过查阅文献、对实际课堂教学活动的观察和对网络课堂教学录像的分析、以及对教师和学生访谈等方法对小学数学课堂进行多维度分析,以便对小学数学课堂提问有更加详尽的研究。笔者将小学数学课堂提问分为三个维度,分别是提问主体维度、提问类型维度和提问时空维度,并对每个维度进行了细化和具体的分析研究。针对主体维度分为教师提问和学生提问两个部分进行研究;根据提问类型维度分为提问的类型、提问的作用两个方面进行研究;根据提问的时空维度分为时间维度和空间维度来对课堂提问进行具体的研究,时间维度方面分为教师提问后的等待时间和教师对学生回答的理答时机两个层面,空间维度方面分析了“秧田型”课堂空间中教师提问与学生座位的关系。笔者在小学数学课堂提问的建议部分,对目前我国小学数学课堂提问活动存在的不足之处进行了分析。并根据存在的不足,并结合第3章小学数学课堂的多维分析,对小学数学课堂提问提出一些教学建议,并对这些建议进行了具体论述。这些建议可以帮助小学数学课堂教学活动取得更好的教学效果,让学生不仅学到数学知识,更可以激发学生的数学学习兴趣、培养学生的问题意识。笔者在小学数学课堂提问的反思与展望部分对全文进行总结和概括,总结了在小学数学课堂提问活动中存在的弊端和不足,以及随着课改进行取得的一些进步与成功。并展望了小学课堂提问活动中教师和学生都拥有的广阔的提升空间和构建和谐数学课堂的可能性,为后续的相关研究做准备。

【Abstract】 Classroom question has a long history as one important teaching method. Also it is frequently used by most teachers in the modern classroom. Through putting question, teachers can evaluate the student’s learning situation. Meanwhile, the classroom question can also lead the student to think deeply on the knowledge, enhance the classroom discipline and classroom management. With the developing of Course Innovation program, the more and more researcher of education and teachers find classroom questioning can also contribute in organizing classroom teaching lively and vividly, training the students with good learning manners and improving the learning efficientBy analysis the existing research on classroom questioning in China, I find most research work focused on the discussing the question putting skills and the analysis of questions, so that the conclusion is always general and broad. Therefore, in this thesis, I investigated the classroom questioning on primary mathematics education comprehensively and specifically. My work has extended the investigated subject from teachers to students。In the introductory part of the thesis, I discussed the title selection background. The Chapter 2 is about literature review in which I introduce the classroom questioning study in US, Japan and China and the shortcomings of these studies. The main part is Chapter 3 and 4. Chapter 3 is about the multi-dimensions analysis of primary mathematics class and Chapter 4 gives the advisement to primary mathematics class. The last part is chapter 5 to give a conclusion of this thesis.Through the literature reading, inspection of formal class teaching and online class teaching video, I make a multi-dimensional analysis on primary mathematics class to sort this study to three dimensions include dimension of subject, dimension of question, time dimension and spatial dimension for proposing question. Every dimension part will be discussed specifically. As to question subjects, it is clearly divided into questions from teachers and questions from student. As to the dimension of question, it consists of the sort of questioning and the effectiveness of different sort of questioning. The time and spatial dimension of questioning includes the study on the classroom questioning both from the time dimension and spatial dimension. The time dimension includes two aspects, one is the waiting time after the teacher putting the question and the other one is the time for student to answer the question. The spatial dimension part mainly discussed the relationship between the questioning and student seats in seedling bed type classroom.In this thesis, I try to study the primary mathematics class questioning more deeply and specifically. Also, in the suggestive part 1 propose some advisement based on my analysis on advantages and disadvantages of primary mathematics class questioning in China. These suggestion includes the teachers should respect the student as the subject of questions. The teacher should be able to put different sorts of questions, and the teachers should take the equality into consideration when put a question. These suggestions can help primary mathematics class to get better education results. The students would not just learn knowledge, but also get inspiration in mathematics and get trained in conscious of question.At last, in the part of introspection and expectation of primary mathematics classroom questioning, I give a conclusion to extract some disadvantages and shortcomings in primary mathematics classroom questioning. However, with the progress of Course Innovation program, my study forecast the high improvement and elevation the teachers and students may achieve in the classroom questioning activity to construct a harmonious class education, which may be a preparation for the following studies.

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