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高中物理习题中模型构建的教学实验研究 ——以“力与运动”的模型为例

【作者】 李诺

【导师】 刘志存;

【作者基本信息】 陕西师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2017, 硕士

【副题名】以“力与运动”的模型为例

【摘要】 传统的教师教育观认为教学的主要任务是给学生教授知识,较少涉及学习策略性知识。在高中物理习题教学中,由于教师缺乏引导学生构建模型的过程,主要是将已经建立好的模型直接呈现给学生,让学生应用,导致学生遇到实际问题时不会灵活建立起物理模型,从而无法独立解答问题,经常出现“一听就懂,一做就错”的情况。基于此现状,笔者搜集了相关的国内外文献,分析了现有的研究成果与存在的不足,认为研究中学物理习题教学中模型的构建,提高中学生分析与归纳重要的物理模型、应用物理模型解答习题的能力具有一定的实际意义。本文在理论部分以问题解决理论、认知学习理论、建构主义理论为基础,阐述物理模型的相关知识。在教学实践过程中,以分析物理习题的解答与模型构建的策略为基础,选取了“力与运动部分物理模型”的教学案例,对物理模型如何应用于习题教学进行了详细阐述。并且选取实习期间所带的两个平行班级为研究对象进行实践研究。通过前测试题对学生进行测试,以及对部分学生调查访谈,了解学生目前在习题解答中应用物理模型存在的问题。针对学生构建模型的现状做出了相应的教学设计,并实施教学。教学过程中,笔者对实验班学生进行有针对性的教学,重视培养学生的建模意识,对照班采用普通的教学方法。经过五个多月的课堂教学后,分别对实验班和对照班学生进行实验后测,测试结果表明,在学习基础相同的情况下,实验班学生成绩较对照班成绩进步明显。本文研究的主要结果是:(1)在高中物理习题教学中提出构建模型的策略并进行分析。(2)以《基础教育课程改革纲要(试行)》与《普通高中物理课程标准(实验)》为理论依据,梳理了高中物理教材中“力与运动”这部分内容的模型。(3)设计前后测实验,通过一学期的教学实践研究,检验了将物理模型应用于习题教学当中具有一定的现实意义和可操作性。(4)结合实验研究和自身体会,归纳了若干条关于“提高中学生构建物理模型能力的途径”的建议,希望有助于提高中学生构建物理模型的能力,同时为—线教师的教学提供参考。

【Abstract】 Traditional concept of education holds the view that the primary goal of teaching is to teach students knowledge while rarely involved in learning strategic knowledge. Currently, in High School physical exercise, the established model will be presented directly to students in terms of application of model. In practical teaching, due to lack of the guiding process which can help students build physical model, students hardly have flexibility to build a physical model when they encounter real problems. Hence, "one seemingly understands while does wrongly in real exercise" sounds no weird. Therefore, it’s necessary to improve students’ability of analyzing and generalizing important physical model, and the ability of answering applied physical model exercises.Considering that, the author reads a lot of literature at home and abroad, and summarizes the existing research results and the shortage. It has some practical significance to study the model building in physical exercises teaching of high school.Based on the Problem Solving Theory, the Cognitive Learning Theory, and the Construction-ism Theory, this article elaborates the knowledge related on the physical model. In the process of teaching practice, based on the strategical analysis of answering the physical exercises and building model, the author chooses the "part of physical model of force and motion" as the case, During internship, the author selects two parallel classes as the research object. Through testing and interviewing some students, the author finds out the problem existing in the application of physical model among students. According to the current circumstance of students building model, the author makes the appropriate instructional design, explains how the physical model apply to exercise teaching in detail.and makes it to teaching practice.In the course of teaching, the specific designed teaching was carried out on the experimental class, great importance was attached to cultivate students’ consciousness of modeling, while the traditional teaching methods was used in comparative class. After about five months’experiment, the author gives the same tests for the two classes, the results show that the students in experimental class doing much better than those in comparative class.The main results of this research as follows:(1) Putting forward the strategies of constructing the model and making the analysis in physical exercises of senior middle school(2)Taking "Elementary Education Curriculum Reform Outline (try out) "and "Ordinary High School Physics Course Standard (experiment)" as the theoretical basis, and clearing up the model of the content of "force and movement" in physics of senior middle school.(3)Concluding that the application of physical model to teaching courses has certain practical significance through a semester of practical teaching and study.(4)Summing up several suggestions when the author combined with experimental study and his own experience, which aiming to help students improve their abilities of building physical model, and providing a reference for teachers.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 陕西师范大学
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