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初三学生考试焦虑干预研究

【作者】 段添翼

【导师】 王工斌;

【作者基本信息】 北京师范大学, 心理咨询, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 考试焦虑正越来越多地受到国内外研究者的关注。研究表明,考试焦虑不仅会对学生的学业成绩带来负面作用,更会对身心健康造成不良影响。尽管研究者在这一领域中做了大量的实践与探索,但在现有研究中存在着干预方法单一、干预方式相似、忽视学习技能训练等问题。本研究旨在通过比较不同干预方法和干预内容对初三学生考试焦虑的作用,探索出考试焦虑干预的有效因素,为初三学生的考试焦虑干预提供新的思路。本研究采用Sarason考试焦虑量表(TAS)筛选出36名存在考试焦虑的初三学生,并在干预前施测了中学生考试焦虑影响因素问卷(IFTAS)对他们考试焦虑状况进行调查。36名被试被随机分成4组,实验组1只接受考试焦虑辅导干预,实验组2只接受学习技能课程干预,实验组3接受考试焦虑辅导和学习技能课程同时干预,对照组不接受任何干预。实验组1、实验组2每组每周只干预一次,每组共8次;实验组3两种干预方式每周各一次,共16次。实验组采用问卷调查、组员反馈、半结构化访谈等方式对干预效果进行定量与定性分析。量化部分得到如下结果:(1)Sarason考试焦虑量表分析结果显示,实验组1干预后考试焦虑降低不显著;实验组2干预后考试焦虑变化不显著;实验组3干预后考试焦虑显著降低;(2)中学生考试焦虑影响因素问卷分析结果显示,实验组1干预后考试焦虑总分、自卑和对后果的担忧维度显著降低;实验组2干预后对学业不良的担忧维度显著降低,考试焦虑总分无显著变化;实验组3干预后在考试焦虑影响因素总分和对学业不良的担忧、自卑、对后果的担忧等维度上显著降低;对照组在前后两个测查点比较中突发事件的干扰维度显著增高;(3)实验组1在干预后学业成绩总分及各科成绩无显著变化;实验组2在干预后英语和化学成绩显著提高;实验组3在干预后化学成绩显著提高;对照组在前后两个测查点的比较中学业成绩总分及各科无显著变化。质性部分得到如下结果:(1)组员认为考试焦虑辅导的活动可以使他们感到快乐和放松、促进团体的凝聚力、学习到实用的放松方法、加深成员对自我和他人的了解等;团体对他们的帮助可以归纳为:对考试焦虑有更清楚的认识、体验到放松的感觉和掌握放松的方法;组员对活动的建议主要是:延长热身活动、延长团体辅导时间等。(2)组员对学习技能课程内容设置的总体情况表示满意,并对每一专题的内容进行了评价;课程对他们的帮助可以归纳为:学到了新的学习方法、掌握了一些应试技巧和对自己的学习过程有更多的反思;组员们对课程的建议有:细化部分课程内容、课程中多加练习等。通过研究可以得出以下结论:1.单独进行考试焦虑辅导干预可以有效降低初三学生的考试焦虑水平,但对学业成绩的提升作用不明显。2.单独进行学习技能课程干预在降低初三学生的考试焦虑水平上作用不明显,但可以在一定程度上提升学业成绩。3.考试焦虑辅导与学习技能课程同时干预可以有效降低初三学生的考试焦虑水平,并能在一定程度上提升学业成绩。

【Abstract】 Test anxiety is being paid attention by more and more researchers. Research shows that test anxiety not only have a negative effect on students’ academic performance, but will harm individual’s physical and mental health. Although researchers have done a lot of work in this area, there still has some problem in existing researches. Such as using single intervention, using similar methods of intervention, neglecting study skills training, etc. This study was designed to compare different kind of interventions effect for test anxiety on 9th grade students, exploring effective factors of test anxiety intervention, providing new test anxiety intervention method for 9th grade students.In this study, we used Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) to select subjects who has high level of test anxiety, finally 36 middle school students were determined, and to investigate the degree of their test anxiety, before intervention the Surveying the Test Anxiety Influencing Factors Questionnaire (IFTAS) was implied. Screened 36 subjects were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups. Group 1 received the Test Anxiety Group Counseling intervention; Group 2 received Learning Skills Course intervention; Group 3 received Test Anxiety Counseling and Learning Skills Course intervention at the same time, while the control group accepted none of intervention. Group 1,2 accepted intervention only once a week, for 8 weeks; Group 3 took one kinds of intervention each week, a total of 16 times. The feedback of 4 experimental groups was collected through questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and other means of intervention quantitative and qualitative analysis.The quantitative results are as follows:(1) TAS analysis shows that test anxiety score of group 1 has decreased not significantly after intervention, group 2 has increased not significantly after intervention, group 3 has declined significantly after intervention; (2) IFTAS analysis shows that subjects from group 1 test anxiety score has declined significantly, low self-esteem dimension and concern about the consequences dimension has also reduced significantly after intervention; Subjects from group 2 concern about the poor academic performance dimension has declined significantly; Subjects from group 3 test anxiety score has declined significantly, low self-esteem dimension, concern about the consequences dimension and poor academic performance dimension has also reduced significantly after intervention; Subjects from control group interference of incidents dimension has increased significantly during the experiment; (3) Academic achievement analysis shows that group 1 has not changed significantly on academic achievement total score; Subjects from group 2 has increased their English and chemistry score after intervention; Subjects from group 3 has increased their chemistry score after intervention; Control group shows no significant change on academic achievement total score during the experiment.The qualitative results are as follows:(1) The crew of test anxiety counseling group think the activity can make them feel happy and relaxed, promote their group cohesion, learn practical ways to relax, deepen understanding of the self and others, etc; The help from the group activities can be summarized as follows:having a better understanding for test anxiety, experiencing the feeling of relaxation and master relaxation techniques; The crew of test anxiety counseling group suggested extend the warm-up activities, to extend the time of group counseling. (2) The crew of Learning Skills Course satisfied with the content settings of study skills course overall, each theme of the course content is evaluated; The help from the courese can be summarized as follows:learning new ways of learning, getting some test-taking skills and having more reflection on their learning process; Suggestions from the crew of course includes: refinement of content of course, add more practice part, etc.By this research we can draw the following conclusions:1. Test Anxiety Group Counseling intervention is effective in reducing 9th grade students’ test anxiety level, but improving academic performance is not obvious.2. Learning Skills Course intervention is invalid in reducing 9th grade students’ test anxiety, but is effective in improving academic performance.3. Test Anxiety Group Counseling combine Learning Skills Course intervention is effective both in reducing 9th grade students’ test anxiety level, and improving academic performance.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 北京师范大学
  • 【分类号】G442
  • 【下载频次】900
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