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基于文化回应教学理论的民族地区小学教学问题探析

【作者】 何元凯

【导师】 倪胜利;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 教育学原理, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 所谓文化回应,是指回应学生的文化背景及由文化背景塑造的价值、认知与行为方式,以学生熟悉的母文化作为教学的起点、中介、学习支架,提供学习者理解的策略与方法。与汉族地区相比,民族地区学生学业成绩普遍较低,学校教学的内容与方式脱离其民族文化背景是重要原因。学生在进入学校时并不是一张白纸,其文化背景塑造了他们的价值观、认知与理解方式、智力倾向、学习风格等。这对民族教育提出了要求与挑战,为了提高民族学生的学习效能,民族地区学校教学对学生民族文化背景的回应,是一个值得探讨的议题。本研究运用观察法和访谈法,在黔东南三县多所小学展开实际考察,发现存在一些不利于民族学生学业的因素。主要是:教学内容脱离学生母文化;教学过程忽视学生文化背景;低年级学生对汉语教材的理解障碍;学校缺少与学生家庭的联系;教师对学生学业成就的期望与态度消极。基于文化回应教学理论进行分析,现象背后存在深刻的文化层面的本质因素,主要是:背景文化塑造个体价值与行为;个体智力与认知结构具有民族性特征;文化背景影响学生学习风格;教师对民族学生的刻板印象与影响。民族地区学校基本上采用全国统编教材与统一教学模式,其内容与呈现方式代表的是主流汉族文化,对民族地区学生并不完全适用,使民族地区学生在学习中遇到更多障碍。基于考察与分析,提出以下文化回应的现实路径,主要是:教学内容与教学过程中融入现实生活经验与民族文化经典;教师克服刻板印象,提高期望与关怀;加强并加深家校联系,全面掌握学生背景信息;教师专业成长中文化回应能力的提升策略。

【Abstract】 Culturally responsive teaching means responding students’ cultural background. It use the cultural knowledge,prior experience,frames of reference,and performance styles of ethnic diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant to and effective for them. One of the most important causes of minority students’ low academic achievement is the disregard of students’ cultural background in curriculum contents and teaching patterns. Children’ s values,cognition patterns,intellectual tendency, and learning styles have been modeled by their cultural background before getting into school. It makes demands and challenges for culturally responsive teaching.The investigation in Southeast Guizhou revealed some disadvantageous elements for students’ learning in school.The curriculum contents and teaching patterns are estranged from students’ ethnic culture.Many primary grades students have troubled with textbooks in language. Schools seldomly contact with students’ family. Teachers have low expectation for students’ academic achievement. Let’s seeing through the appearance to perceive the essence. Firstly, the cultural background modeled individual’s values and behaviors. Secondly,people’s intellectual and cognitive structures comes with cultural attributes. Thirdly,teachers often stereotyping minority students.Schools in minority area mostly use state-compiled textbooks and unified teaching patterns,Which represents the norms of the majority culture and don’t fit minority students well. It puts obstacles in students’ learning path.To remove obstacles,schools need to implement culturally responsive teaching. Specific approaches are as follow:integrating students’ experiences and ethnic cultural classics into curriculum; exerting the power of culturally responsive caring; more communication with students’ family;strategies for enhancing teachers’ culturally responsive capability.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
  • 【分类号】G629.2
  • 【下载频次】103
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