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中小学影子教育的失范与规范

【作者】 何馨

【导师】 唐智松;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 教育学原理, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 影子教育在我国也被称为课外辅导、补习教育或有偿补习等,他是存在于主流学校之外的,为加强和扩展学生在主流学校主要科目课程知识学习的一种教育活动。中小学影子教育主要面向中小学学生,以提高其学习成绩为目的,并有偿收取一定费用。家长认为影子教育是对人力资本的一种投资,因此不惜重金投入以期望获得相应的回报。在我国优质教育资源匮乏,教育机会不均等,对于优质教育资源的争夺加速了人才培养间的激烈竞争。影子教育市场里面蕴藏的巨大商机正不断受到各投资者的亲睐。近年来,我国中小学影子教育发展迅猛,其功能和效果也得到了家长和学生的肯定,他们期望通过影子教育培训以求短期内获得提升。首先,影子教育的存在确实解决了部分中小学家长的子女教育问题,如提高了学生的学业成绩,增加竞争力;满足家长的期望,督促学生学习;因材施教满足不同层次学生的需求;提供更多就业岗位,促进社会经济的发展等。但是,分析也发现,影子教育也带来了系列的消极影响,如增加学生的学业负担和家庭开支、扰乱学校的正常教学、加剧扩大教育不公平、推进应试教育的发展等。其次,通过调查发现,在我国影子教育机构的发展已经呈现规模化、多元化。同时,影子教育市场也出现了一定程度的失范。本文通过对中小学影子教育失范的现状进行考察和评判,发现影子教育存在制度设计及其缺失、经营范围不规范、消费者维权监管的失范、缺乏有效的教师队伍管理和教学质量监控体制、缺乏有效的内部财务监管、教育办学机构急功近利的价值观和功利化价值观等方面的失范。本文主要从影子教育制度设计缺失、政府监管失范、内部管理失范、价值追求失范这四个维度对影子教育的失范进行阐述。其中在影子教育政府和内部管理监管失范方面,本文主要站在政府和社会舆论监督部门的角度,从影子教育准入监管的失范、影子教育教师资源监管的失范、影子教育消费者维权监管失范和影子教育教学质量监控的失范的方面对影子教育失范的行为进行具体论述。再次,分析影子教育失范的原因,文章主要是从市场利益化环境的影响、较低经济发展的限制、过度功利化教育倾向的影响、家长社会的诉求和被误导的学校教育实践这五个方面对影子教育的失范进行原因分析。最后,影子教育是在市场经济的裹挟中违背了教育的本质。因此,需要从完善法律体制、发挥舆论监督作用,利用新闻舆论保障消费者权益;同时要加强政府监督、规范教育市场竞争,明确监管标准,强化政府监管力度;最重要的是要遵循教育规律,回归人本主义价值观念,转变教育理念从而理性选择影子教育等方面进行规范,使之回到教育的本真道路。

【Abstract】 The shadow education in our country is also known as tutoring, remedial education or tuition fee, etc.It is an educational activity which exists outside the mainstream schools, inoder to strengthen and expand the curriculum knowledge learning in the mainstream school.The shadow educatiion in Primary and Secondary school is main face to the Primary and secondary pupils for the purpose of improving their academic record with fee charging.Parents regard the shadow education is an investment in human capital,Therefore they are not hesitate to investment heavily in hopes to get the corresponding returns. The quality education resources is lack in our country,the education opportunity is unequal,which is accelerate the fierce competition for quality educational resources between Talents. An enormous business opportunities in the Shadow education market which are favoured by various investor.In recent years,with the rapid development of shadow education in Primary and Secondary schools in our contry which have been affirmed by parents and students with its function and effect. They expect to get promote in the short term by the shadow education.Firstly, The investigation discovered that the development of the shadow education have been presented scale and diversified.But at the same time,the shadow education market also appeared a certain degree of anomie.In this paper, Based on the status of anomie in Primary and Secondary Education which has carried on the investigation and evaluation.We found that the shadow education is lack of system design,Business is not standardized,Consumer rights supervision anomie,lacking of effective management of teachers and teaching quality monitoring system,lack ing of effective internal financial regulation,Educational values and educational institution instant success utilitarian values, etc.This article mainly expound from four dimensions with the lack of shadow education system design,government regulation anomie,Internal management anomie and the value pursuit of anomie. This paper wherein the shadow education anomie regulatory aspects which stands in the perspective of the government and social sectors of public opinion. We discusses the shadow education anomie behavior from the shadow education access supervision of anomie,shadow education teacher resources supervision anomie, regulatory aspects of consumer rights demonstration and teaching quality monitoring of anomie.Secondly,The existence of shadow education,really have solved the problem of part of parents of children education in primary and secondary schools.Such as improved student achievement to increase competitiveness,meeting the expectations of parentsand and urging students to learn, Individualized to meet the needs of students at different levels,Provide more jobs and promote social and economic development, etc.However, the analysis also found that the shadow education training also brought a series of negative effects,Such as increasing students’ academic burden and household expenses,disrupting the normal school teaching,expanding the education unfair,promoting the development of examination-oriented education, etc.Thirdly,analyzing the reasons of the anomie in shadow education,this article mainly perform causal analysis from the impact of market interest environments,lower limit economic development,the influence of excessive utilitarian education tendency,social demands of parents and misguided school education practice.Finally, the shadow education is contrary to the essence of education in a market economy in coerced.Therefore, we should perfect the legal system and play a role of supervision by public opinion.Using the news media to protect consumer interests.At the same time the government should strengthen supervision, standardize the market competition in education,strengthen government supervision.The most important thing is to follow the rules of education, return to the humanistic values,transform the education idea and rational choice such as shadow education for specification.

【关键词】 中小学影子教育失范规范
【Key words】 Primary and secondary schoolsShadow educationAnomieRegulation

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
  • 【分类号】G632.0
  • 【下载频次】662
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