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义务教育段农民工随迁子女社会支持的现存问题与对策研究 ——以成都市X区为例

【作者】 刘宇婷

【导师】 廖其发;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 基础教育学, 2017, 硕士

【副题名】以成都市X区为例

【摘要】 随着我国工业化进程加快,农村转移劳动力越来越多地涌入城市,特别是举家外出务工的家庭越来越多,农民工随迁子女的数量也随之急速上涨。庞大的农民工随迁子女群体在城市的义务教育问题一直为社会各界所关注,尽管中央政府实施了“两为主”政策,但近年来“两为主”政策也面临执行困难、落实不力的问题。针对农民工随迁子女的义务教育,尽管社会各界也提供了相应的社会支持,现阶段对义务教育段农民工随迁子女的社会支持仍然严重不足,特别是在西南地区,需要加强社会支持力度,但如何加强,需要进行全面的研究。学术界虽然对相关问题有所研究,但研究的还不够,对其社会支持具体存在的问题、问题产生的原因、以及解决问题的策略都要进行全面研究。因此,本研究以西南流动人口集中的代表城市成都市为样本来源地,在市内义务教育段农民工随迁子女集中的区域中随机选取出一个区,以此区域为例,在社会支持理论和社会资源理论指导下,通过实施社会支持调查,对调查结果深入分析,指出义务教育段农民工随迁子女社会支持的现存问题,并探寻产生这些问题的根本和直接原因,在此基础上提出相应的解决策略,以期对当下农民工随迁子女义务教育方面一些问题的解决以及相关的社会支持研究与实务提供借鉴和参考。绪论是对本研究的总体介绍。除绪论之外,正文主要由以下四个部分组成:第一部分是关于义务教育段农民工随迁子女社会支持的理论分析。主要进行义务教育段农民工随迁子女的社会支持结构、社会支持分类、社会支持体系构建的必要性、社会支持体系的评价标准、社会支持与社会保障、政策的构成关系等理论分析,结合学术界前人的研究成果和笔者对相关理论知识的深入剖析,进行本研究所需理论层面的准备,以此为开展后续研究打好基础。第二部分在分析调查数据的基础上,论述义务教育段农民工随迁子女社会支持存在的问题。在社会支持理论和社会资源理论指导下,通过问卷、访谈以及实地观察,主要对情感支持情况、实际支持情况、社会交往支持情况方面存在的问题进行了分析。认为X区农民工随迁子女总体上得到的社会支持不足。具体表现为:在情感支持方面,农民工家长对其子女的情感支持不足、情感支持条件匮乏;在实际支持方面的状况较差,突出表现在实际支持主体窄化、入学手续上的制度支持和程序支持不足、学业上的工具性支持弱化或缺乏、物质支持不足;在社会交往支持方面,其社会交往群体异质性低、来自城市居民的社会交往支持较低。此外尚未形成农民工随迁子女社会支持的长效机制。第三部分深入分析义务教育段农民工随迁子女社会支持问题产生的原因。主要从根本原因和直接原因两个方面分析。认为根本原因主要有城乡分割和区域分割体制的影响;“哑铃型”社会结构下的中产阶层过于弱小;地域观念的盛行;农民工家庭社会关系网络异质性低,获取社会资源困难;而由根本原因造成的问题不能够进行一次性消解,只能通过长期性的措施逐渐改善。直接原因主要是中央政府颁布的政策落实不力;农民工在城市的社会、经济地位较低;农民工家长的教育理念滞后;打工子弟学校教师流动性大;民办教育应运市场需求诞生,自利动机强;社会支持实务缺少社区参与;专业社工短缺,社会支持有效性低等方面的原因。第四部分主要对义务教育段农民工随迁子女的社会支持提出优化策略。在社会支持理论以及社会资源理论的指导下,以保障农民工随迁子女义务教育受教育权为底线原则,坚持义务教育公平为基本原则,以社会支持体系评价标准为主要参照,以构建社会支持体系为未来目标,提出对义务教育段农民工随迁子女社会支持的优化策略。策略的提出从三个方面进行,即实际支持、情感支持、社会交往支持三个大的方面,其中将实际支持细化为制度支持、程序支持、物质支持、工具性支持4个小的方面,以此来更清楚地表述实际支持方面的策略。本研究基于对西南代表城市成都市内的义务教育段农民工随迁子女的社会支持调查,以及对调查现状的问题总结、归因分析,认为应该继续加强社会支持理论层面上的研究和实务层面上的探索,特别是在社会支持实务层面应该加强对义务教育段农民工随迁子女的社会支持力度,从情感方面、实际支持方面及社会交往支持方面提供可操作的策略,使社会支持理论成果转化到实务应用中,以便更好地服务于农民工随迁子女,使他们摆脱义务教育困境。

【Abstract】 Along with the accelerated process of industrialization in China, the rural labor force increasingly crowds into cities, especially the rural family, thus the number of accompanying children of peasant-workers is rising sharply. All walks of life has always paid attention to large group of migrant workers children who are in compulsory education in city. Although the policy of "two priorities" from central government helps to solve their education problems, in recent years, this policy is facing difficulties, especially the problem of poor execution. For compulsory education of peasant-workers’ accompanying children, people from all walks of life also provide some corresponding social supports, but at this stage social support to accompanying children of peasantworkers who are in compulsory education especially in the southwest, is still inadequate. There is a need strengthening social support, but how to strengthen, what the specific problems are, the causes of existing problems and the strategies also need to conduct a comprehensive study.Therefore, Chengdu as a typical southwest city where has most of mobile population was treated as the sample source region. This study randomly selected a area from Chengdu where the accompanying children of peasant-workers in compulsory education concentrate, and take this area as an example. Under the guidance of social support theory and social resources theory, analyze the existing problems of the social support of the migrant workers children in compulsory education, explore the fundamental and direct reasons for these problems, and on the basis of this analysis put forward the corresponding solving strategies, in order to provide reference to solving present migrant workers children’s compulsory education problem and to related social support research.In this paper, after the introduction which makes a whole brief, mainly consists of the following parts:The first part mainly carries on theoretical analysis about the compulsory education period of migrant workers children’s social support structure, social support classification, necessity of building social support system, standard of evaluating the system and the composition of the relationship between the elements. We prepare for subsequent research from summarizing predecessors’ research achievements of academic and deeply analyzing related theoretical knowledge.The second part analyzes the survey data and discusses the problems existing in the social support of compulsory education period of peasant workers’ accompanying children. Under the guidance of the theory of social support and social resources, through questionnaires, interviews and field observation, emotional support situation, the actual support, social interaction support problems are analyzed. It founds out that in X area peasant workers’ accompanying children in general lack of social support. Specific performance as follows, in terms of emotional support, migrant parents lack of insufficient support to their children, also lacking in emotional support conditions; In terms of practical support, subjects narrowing to offer support, regulation and procedure support weakening on enrollment and application of the migrant children, instrumental support weakening and insufficient material support; In terms of social support, low heterogeneity and its social groups with low social support from urban residents. Children of migrant workers has not been formed such a long-term mechanism in addition trailing system of social support.The third part analyzes the reasons of social support problems faced by accompanying children of peasant-workers in compulsory education. Mainly from the aspects of root cause and direct cause. We think the fundamental reasons are the influence of urban-rural division and regional segmentation, the middle class of dumbbell social structure is too weak, regional concept’s popularity and the low heterogeneity of migrant workers families! social network causes the difficulties of gaining social resource; the problems caused by fundamental reasons cannot be solved at once only through long-term measures to gradually improve. Direct reasons are the central policy issued by the lack of policy implementation, the migrant parents ’education idea lag, the migrant school teachers’ great mobility, and lack of professional community workers and so on.The fourth part mainly discusses the optimization strategies of the social support on accompanying children of peasant-workers in compulsory education. Under the guidance of social support theory and social resources theory, take the bottom line principle to guarantee peasant workers’ children’s compulsory education right, adhere to the fair compulsory education as the basic principle, treat the standard of evaluating social support system as a main reference and build a social support system as a future aim to put forward the optimization tactics of the social support to the accompanying children of peasant-workers. The strategies include three main aspects which are emotional support, actual support and social interaction support. In order to express the strategies more clearly, actual support is divided into four which are regulation support, procedure support, material support and instrumental support.This study based on the social support research of typical southwest city of Chengdu, through summarizing the problems and analyzing the causes, found out that researches on theory and practice should be enforced. Especially on practice, offering the practical strategies on emotional support, actual support and social interaction support and transferring the theory achievements into practical application to help accompanying children of peasant-workers to get rid of the trouble in their compulsory education.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
  • 【分类号】G521
  • 【下载频次】296
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