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知识教学有效控制研究 ——以中学物理教学为例

【作者】 吴小蕊

【导师】 沈小碚;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 课程与教学论, 2017, 硕士

【副题名】以中学物理教学为例

【摘要】 控制不仅作为一种客观性力量存在于知识教学中,也是主体价值选择和自觉行动的主观结果。知识教学系统是一个精致的控制系统,教师的掌控主要包括教学进程、教学内容、教学时空、教学行为等范畴,具有鲜明的控制性质。学生自主发展的实现是新课程改革及其世界教育改革之追求。在此背景下,知识教学控制遭受到了前所未有的贬义冲击,自主与控制之间的矛盾在知识教学过程中日益凸显,对知识教学效果产生了消极影响。本研究以此为出发点,研究如何通过知识教学的有效控制来有效促进学生学习与发展,主要包括以下几方面内容:一是阐明知识教学控制的价值取向。知识是一种文化创造,基于不同层面的理解就有不同的价值、意义和功能。学生发展是知识教学的根本指向,我国的知识教学价值在相应的理性思潮支撑下形成了策略价值、实践价值、存在价值等取向,研究范式从技术理性开始走向文化理解,知识的认识和理解也实现了从认知论意义到存在论意义层面的转变,知识与学生的发展具有了更深层次的关联,对知识教学实践活动产生了重大的指引作用。二是阐述知识教学控制的具体范畴。从知识教学的结构和环节入手,知识教学控制内容主要包括对教学进程、教学内容、教学时空和教学行为四个范畴。三是分析知识教学控制系统的操作机理。运用分析还原主义的认识方式,知识教学系统的运行机制可分为教控系统、学控系统、反馈系统三个子系统,其中,反馈系统贯穿于教控系统和学控系统之中。四是揭示知识教学有效控制的现实困境。当前的教育实践问题在知识教学控制系统中表现出一定的共性,比如:目标的游离化、交往的异向化、低效化等。要实现知识教学有效促进学生的自主发展,应明白协商和对话的机制应基于控制机制才会有效,且必须解决教师的系统控制能力和教学效果低下的问题。五是构建知识教学有效控制的实践策略。本研究从物理教学出发,结合具体案例提出知识教学有效控制的实践策略,以促进教学质量的提升。

【Abstract】 Control is not only an objective power inherent in knowledge teaching, but also is a subjective force by value choice and the conscious action of people. Knowledge teaching system is a sophisticated control system, the main control categories point to teaching process, teaching contents, teaching space-time, teaching behavior, have a distinct control property. The current new curriculum reform put forward the new goals and requirements about promoting autonomously learning and development of students,conform to the trend of current world education reform, but the knowledge teaching control is subjected to unprecedented derogatory impacts, the contradiction between autonomy and and control is prominent increasingly in the process of knowledge teaching, and produce some negative effect on knowledge teaching. The paper regard it as a starting point study how to promote students’ learning and development effectively by using effective teaching control ways or behaviors, key distinction include following aspects:First, clarify the value orientation of knowledge teaching control. The knowledge as a creation of human culture, blend in the process of man’s existence, confirm the existence of people. It have different value, significance and function on different levels and guide to different control orientation. Student development is the fundamental target of knowledge teaching. Chinese research paradigm about knowledge teaching value turn its direction from technical rationality to cultural understanding, and also form tool value orientation, practical value and understand value orientation, the understand of knowledge have changed from cognitive theory to ontology significance level,knowledge and the development of students have a deeper relationship, and will make important effect for specific knowledge teaching activities.Second, expound the specific categories of knowledge teaching. view from theconstruction and links of knowledge teaching, these control categories including teaching process, teaching content, teaching space-time and teaching behaviors.Third, analysis the operating mechanism of knowledge teaching control system.using the disintegrate-restore way, the control system can be divided into “teacher control system”, “learner control system”and “feedback system”, and the feedback system throughout in the other two systems.Fourth, reveal realistic difficulties existing in the knowledge teaching system. The current educational practice problems shown a certain commonality, such as: the free goals, the catabolic exchange, the low efficiency. If we understand that the efficiency of consultation and dialogue should be based on the effective control mechanism, also solve the inefficiency of control system bring about teacher’s low control ability, the knowledge teaching will promote the autonomous development of students.Fifth, build the practice strategies about effective knowledge teaching control. this study starting from physics instruction, relying on specific cases on proposing the effective control strategies about knowledge teaching practice, and improve teaching quality.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
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