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幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向研究

【作者】 姜雪薇

【导师】 胡福贞;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 学前教育学, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 批判性思维倾向是个体有意识地选择批判性思维进行信息处理的一种心理状态、意愿和心向,它是批判性思维的动力性因素,也是生成创造力的基础和关键。随着信息化社会的加剧和世界背景的复杂、多变,教师的批判性思维逐渐成为教育学尤其是教师心理学关注的重要课题和研究热点,这也适应了我国师范教育向教师教育转变中关注教师积极思维品质的客观要求。幼儿园教师的批判性思维倾向是激发教师进行批判性思考的重要前提,也是提高教师反思水平和反思深度的基础。幼儿园教师的批判性思维倾向对于促进教师专业自主发展意义重大,它区别于具有普遍适用性的批判性思维倾向而言,具有怎样的特点是本研究要探讨的一个重要问题。本研究的总体思路为:理论建构——问卷编制——现状调查与分析——建议与思考。研究者首先在借鉴国内外相关文献和既有问卷或量表的基础上,结合对幼儿园教师访谈资料的整理,在理论上确定了幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向的结构。然后,根据理论构想的结果,编制了幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向初测问卷进行实证调查,研究幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向的实证结构,并形成正式的问卷。最后,通过对重庆、四川、甘肃、河南及海南等地的318名幼儿园教师进行现状调查,初步揭示了幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向的现状特点。研究发现,幼儿园教师的批判性思维倾向是一个由多成分组成的结构,主要包括六个维度,分别是:敏感性、自信心、成熟性、分析性、质疑性和开放性。总体而言,当前我国幼儿园教师的批判性思维倾向水平一般,各维度发展水平不一,且存在较大的差异性。通过进一步分析,研究者发现幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向上存在的问题主要表现为:教师在推理的过程中信心和勇气不足,缺乏合理的疑虑与深刻的自我反省,对自己分析所得出的结论表现出动摇等。幼儿园教师在思考时出现上述问题除了自身原因之外,还与周围的人际关系、培养教育方式、管理制度与文化氛围等方面密切相关。据此,研究者认为,提高幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向,优化教师思维品质,应该从教师自身、教师教育培训机构和幼儿园管理三方面改善。幼儿园教师自身应树立自我变革的观念,不断加强自我反省,深化教学实践中的反思与合作;幼儿园教师教育培训机构应把培养教师的批判性思维列为重要目标,开设相关课程,优化培训方式和培训内容;幼儿园管理者应强化开放的教师管理文化,通过完善管理制度和健全教师评价体系等途径,使幼儿园的反思文化不断得到调整、深化,在培养教师个体批判性思维倾向的同时实现个体与群体之间的团体共生。综上所述,本研究的创新和突破之处体现在以下两个方面:通过理论构想和实证研究,揭示了幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向的基本成分;编制了较为规范且符合心理测量学要求的《幼儿园教师批判性思维倾向问卷》。但由于笔者研究条件和能力的有限,问卷仍需进一步的修订、完善。

【Abstract】 Critical thinking disposition is a kind of psychological states, willingness and a tendency when individual consciously use critical thinking to dispose the different information. It is the dynamics factor for critical thinking, and also the basic and foundation to generating creativity. By the aggravation of information-based society with the complexity and diversification of the world background, which has shifted researchers’ perspective of teachers’ critical thinking, teachers’ critical thinking included teachers’ critical thinking disposition is becoming an important research topic in pedagogy, especially in psychology of teachers. This just adapts to the objective needs to lay emphasis on teachers’ positive mental quality in occupation while shifting from normal education to teacher education in China. Critical thinking disposition is significant to preschool teachers’ self-directed professional development. The question what is the particular characteristic between preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition and critical thinking disposition is an important issue in this study.The main steps of this study is as follows: from theoretical construction to tool development, and then characteristic analysis. Firstly, basing on the similar researches conducted in China and other countries, combining the results of interviewing materials,and then construct a theoretical model matches to the structure of preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition. Secondly, make out a initial questionnaire for the preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition according to the structure model and apply it to the investigation in order to obtain the empirical structure of the preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition, and form the formal questionnaire. Lastly, through issuing the questionnaires to 318 preschool teachers from Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Henan,Hainan and other provinces, to examine the developmental characteristics of preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition.This study found that the critical thinking disposition of preschool teachers is a structure of multi-components, including six components: susceptibility, self-confidence,maturity, analyticity, querying consciousness and openness. In general, the level ofpreschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition now in our country is just in the middle.The characteristics of preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition have unbalanced development and exist great differences. Through further analysis, the researchers found that the problems of preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition are mainly as follows: teachers are lack of confidence and courage in the process of reasoning, lack of reasonable doubt and profound self-examination, and show flexuous on their own conclusions and so on. Why teachers have the above problems except personal reasons,interpersonal relationship around, education mode, management system and culture atmosphere etc. are also closely related to these problems.Therefore, researchers thought that, in order to improving preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition and optimize the quality of thinking, we should improve from three aspects: teachers their own, teacher education and training institutions and the management of preschool. Preschool teachers should establish the concept of self reform, strengthen self reflection, deepen cooperation and reflection in teaching practice;Preschool teacher education training institutions should set the cultivation of teachers’ critical thinking as an important goal, and open relative courses, optimize the training mode and training content; Preschool managers should strengthen the open manage-culture, and improve the management system and the teacher evaluation system.By these ways, kindergarten’s reflective culture can be adjust and deepened constantly,thus to improve teachers’ critical thinking disposition, and realized the group symbiosis between individuals and groups at same time.In general, there are two creative points of this study: The first is that the components of preschool teachers’ critical thinking disposition have been revealed by conceiving in theory and carrying out experiments. The second is that preschool school teachers’ critical thinking disposition questionnaire has been made out according to the psychometrics’ demands. However, since the limitation of objective conditions and the researcher’s ability, the questionnaire need to be further improved.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
  • 【分类号】G615
  • 【下载频次】301
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