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学校道德教育的人性化探析

【作者】 宋晓雅

【导师】 易连云;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 教育学原理, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 进入新世纪,我国教育事业的发展进入了更加蓬勃发展时期。在学校教育中,坚持德育为先,立德树人,强调学生的培育要德、智、体、美等的全面的发展。我国自古以来,在学校教育中,注重对学生德性的培养,注重学生道德品质的提高,道德教育,素质教育也是近几年一直被提倡,被重视的。但是当认真反思道德教育的结果,却发现依旧存在着问题,面临着挑战。在以往的道德教育中,在某些方面道德教育存在被异化的问题,各种工具主义、利己主义、享乐主义、科学主义等思潮冲击着道德教育应有的实然状态。道德教育中这些问题的出现,都有一个共同点,那就是:道德教育中的出发点和落脚点都没有落实到学生身上,忽视了学生在道德教育中应有的地位,反而更多的强调的是已有的道德准则、道德经验、道德规范对学生的制约和规训,导致道德教育中出现“人学空场”、“无人”教育。道德教育中的“人学空场”和“无人”教育它不符合道德教育的原本价值取向,也违背了道德教育以人为本的理念。我们的教育目的是实现人的全面发展,从人的发展的角度出发,道德教育更应该回归到人这个本体,尊重道德教育的人性的基础。道德是人类所特有的属性,人性是人类最本质的特征。“以人为本是现代德育思维的价值理想。德育是人自身发展完善需求的产物,人是德育现象发生的根据和基础。所以,以人为本理应是德育的天然规定。”(1)道德教育回归到人自身的发展、尊重人在道德教育中的基础性地位,既是现实的需求,也是未来道德教育发展的趋势。在本文中,第一部分,从现实层面出发,着重介绍我国学校道德教育在主体、目标、内容、方法、和评价上忽视了人性的具体表征及其所产生的不良后果。第二部分,具体分析了现今道德教育忽视人的四个具体原因:中国传统教育对人性压抑的影响犹存,道德教育政治化对人的本性的忽视,科学主义思潮影响下,道德教育对人性的消解,学校道德教育自身诸因素共同作用。第三部分,首先,从“人是道德存在的主体,道德是人的超越性的追求,道德的起源于人的需要”这三个角度分析道德与人性之间的关系;其次分析具体探究道德教育人性化的哲学理论依据:道德教育义务观:捍卫人性的普遍要求;道德教育荣誉观:对人性捍卫者的证实;道德教育幸福观:人性内容的凝聚。最后,再次进行论证,道德教育与人性之间的关系,厘清人在道德教育中的基础性和主体性地位,道德教育应从人性这个基础出发,是现当代道德教育的应然追求的状态。第四部分,针对前面道德教育忽视人性问题进行具体回应,提出道德教育应回归人的具体建议、措施。

【Abstract】 In the new century,the development of education in China has entered a period of more vigorous. In school education,adhere to moral education first,emphasizing the overall development of students to cultivate the moral, intellectual, physical and aesthetic. Since ancient times,China in school education,which is paying attention to the cultivation of students ’moral, focusing on improving the quality of students’ moral.But when we consider the result of the moral education,only to find there are still some problems and challenges. In the past,moral education,there were problems in some areas of moral education,Instrumentalist,egoism,hedonism,scientism and other thoughts were impacting on moral education,which is affecting the moral education should be real natural state. Moral Education appears these problems,but there is one thing in common: moral education starting point is not putting to the students,ignoring the students’ rightful place in moral education,and more emphasising on the existing code of ethics,moral experience,moral constraints of students and discipline which results in "no the human" appearing in Education and moral Education. Moral Education "No The Human" which is damaging the original value orientation,and it is not complying with moral education, contrary to the moral education of the people-oriented concept, but also contrary to the moral education should be to the formation and development of the law of human nature. Educational aim is to achieve comprehensive human development,from the perspective of human development point of view,moral education should return to the people,on the basis of respect for the moral education of humanity.Morality is unique to human,the human nature is mankind’s most essential features. "People-oriented values of modern moral thinking. Moral is man’s own development and improvement the needs of the product,and the human who is also he the basis of moral phenomenon occurs. Therefore,people-oriented is supposed natural prescribedmoral."(1)Moral education to people’s own development, respect for human fundamental role in moral education,both realistic and demand,and also the future trend of moral education.In this article, the first part,starting from the practical level,focusing on our Moral Education on the subject,objectives,content,methods,and evaluation of ignoring the specific characterization of human nature and its adverse consequences.The second part,which is carefully analysis of four specific reasons that people neglect of moral education :Influenced by chinese traditional education pressed on human and it is still affect modern moral education;politic neglects human nature, the scientific ideological trend influence, moral education of humanity digestion, school moral education itself various factors working together. The third part,firstly,from "man is the subject of morality,morality is the pursuit of human,transcendent origin of morality on human needs" three point of the view of the relationship between morality and humanity; Secondly,analysising of specific exploration of moral education based on humane philosophy: moral education obligations: to defend the general requirements of human nature; moral education honor concept: proven defenders of human nature;moral education happiness Views: pour the contents of humanity. Finally, again demonstrate the relationship between moral education and humanity between people clarify basic and subjective position in moral education,moral education should be the basis of humanity departure,it is contemporary moral education ought to pursue state.The fourth part,for the previous neglect of moral education in response to specific problems of humanity,moral education should return to make specific proposals human measures.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
  • 【分类号】G41
  • 【下载频次】87
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