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自由游戏中教师评价行为研究

【作者】 张淼

【导师】 李姗泽;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 学前教育学, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 自由游戏是指那些,幼儿能够自由选择活动类型,并能够自主决定游戏的方式,积极自愿的卷入到游戏中去的任何游戏,在该类游戏中,没有明显的外在目标(目标本身蕴含于材料与环境中)幼儿自觉遵守游戏的各种规则,充分发挥自己的主动性和游戏材料及同伴相互作用,促进自身各方面的发展。本研究中的自由游戏主要包括教师发起的自由游戏以及幼儿自发的自由游戏两大类。自由游戏中教师评价行为主要是指是在自由游戏的情景下,教师在观察了解的基础上,以某种教育观念为指引,通过言语、非言语等方式,对幼儿游戏中的表现(行为、态度),做出的价值判断;既包括对行为本身的信息反馈,又包含着对被评价个体的情感倾向。教师的评价行为本质上既是教师介入幼儿游戏的一种方式,又是教师和幼儿互动、塑造幼儿的方式,是发展幼儿自由游戏“有益性”的必要步骤。本研究,综合收集的观察和访谈资料,将自由游戏具体分为:教师发起的有主题的自由游戏、教师发起的无主题的自由游戏、“合法的”自发型自由游戏、“违法的”自发型自由游戏四类,在收集到488次评价行为中,第一类游戏占据了339次,比例高达69.47%;剩下三类游戏中教师评价行为出现的次数分别为:87次、20次以及42次,在后三类游戏中,教师评价行为的频次急剧下降。自由游戏中教师评价行为具体分为十类,主要包括:认可、鼓励、激励、引导、提醒、警告、否定、忽视、制止、惩罚。其中引导这一评价行为出现的次数最多,比例达22.13%,比排名第二的否定多了4.92个百分点;排名最低的是忽视这一评价行为,但由于“忽视”这一评价行为偏静态,并且数量比较多,所以较难记录,因此其真实数据要远高于1.23%这个数据。教师的评价行为,在这四类自由游戏中出现了两极化的情况,教师的评价主要集中于前两类,尤其是第一类自由游戏中,对三四类游戏教师以忽视和斥责为主;其次,教师评价的内容比较浅,对幼儿的发展功能有限;评价中主客体关系颠倒,幼儿的游戏性体验遭到破坏;幼儿的自我评价和相互评价受到忽视;评价中的“保龄球”现象和专制现象比较严重;最后,教师评价的效果不甚理想,由于观察的不足,产生评价偏差;为了鼓励而产生的虚假肯定有损评价的公平;教师评价行为和游戏的其他环节严重脱节、正面评价对改善幼儿行为收效甚微,归纳导致教师评价行为出现问题的原因,主要包括:教师的理念出现偏差,以及对自由游戏的误读;教师专业知识储备的不足,致使其对幼儿的行为做出的错误评价;幼儿自发型自由游戏本身的特点限制了教师的评价行为;教师评价能力有限;以教师为主导的评价方式;教师对自身评价行为缺少反思等。根据这些原因,提出解决问题的具体对策。由于教师在四类游戏中差异较大的评价行为,因此针对每一类游戏提出不同的对策;对于第一类游戏,教师主要是处理好主客体关系,减量提质,具体包括:弱化教师影响,引导幼儿自主评价和相互评价;以评价为切入点,生成新的游戏内容,深化游戏;处理好主客体关系,保护幼儿的游戏性体验。对于第二类游戏,教师应该改变观念,具体包括:重新界定教师在该类游戏中的角色;改变评价的内容,关注幼儿游戏行为本身;根据活动类型,调整评价方式,尽量不破坏游戏气氛。对于第三类游戏,教师应该予以重视:了解自由游戏对幼儿发展的价值;记录幼儿的自由游戏,发掘其教育价值;对于第四类游戏,教师应该反思自身:积累专业知识,了解幼儿行为背后的含义;调整自身教育行为,使其符合幼儿的学习特点;减少负面评价中的消极情绪,保护幼儿的情感。

【Abstract】 Free play here mainly mains it’s nature, it belongs to free play,so long as it gives children the right to choose and decide freely, besides there’s no external goal. Free play in this study is divided into two categories: the free play launched by teacher or children themselves. The evaluation of teacher in the free play means that teachers make judgments in the way of verbal or non-verbal about children’ behavior and attitude guided by some educational concept on the basis of enough observing and knowing; It includes both the information feedback to the behavior and the attitude predisposition. In nature, the evaluation behavior of teacher in the free play is a way of involvement in children’s play and interacting with children.In addition,it’s a tool of stand up for teaching action and a necessary step to develop the value of free play.According to the collected data,free play is categorized to :free play with theme launched by teacher, free play without theme launched by teacher, free play launched by children themselves in the ”legal time”, free play launched by children in the “illegal time”. Among the 488 times evaluation behavior,the first kind of free play occupies 339 times,and the other occupies 87,20,42 times in sequence, we can easily distinguish the evaluation behavior decreasing sharply. The type of evaluation behavior of teacher in total is ten, including :recognition, encouragement, motivation, guidance, caution, warning, deny, ignorance, restrain, punishment. It is worth noting that “guidance” turns up frequently most, it’s proportion is 22.13%,there is 4.92% more than the second. Ignorance turns up barely and it’s rate is only 1.23%,but it is not accurate because of its characters, result in hard to sign, so it’s real data must be more larger.There is a phenomena of polarization in the evaluation behavior of teacher,most of the evaluation behavior turns up in the first and second kind of free play and there is almost no in the third and fourth kind of free play. In addition the content of evaluation is simple, limiting the developing function. The relationship between subject and object is reversed, breaking the playful experience. Children’s self-evaluation and mutual evaluation is ignored. There is a serious phenomenon of autocracy and “bowling”. At last the outcome of teachers’ evaluation behavior is not ideal, including assessment bias because of the less survey, the misjudgment about the evaluation and so on.The reason result that problems include :the teachers’ false educational concept and misunderstanding about the free play, the short of professional knowledge, the underlying problem in the free play constrain the teacher’s evaluation behavior, the evaluation way which is dominated by teacher, teachers themselves lacks the reflection about evaluation. In order to solve these problems above, teachers should change their minds and behavior. In the fist kind of free play teacher should weakening theater’s influence, guide children to evaluate by themselves or between the children; Put the evaluation as the breakthrough to deepen the play and generate new details. Deal with the relation between subject and object and protect children’s playful experience. In the second free play,teachers should change their minds and pay more attention to it, teacher should define the role teacher in the play and change the content they evaluate, with more attention paid on the children’s play behavior; Besides teacher should adjust the way they evaluate to the concrete play type. For the third free play, teacher should keep a watchful eye on it and know the value of free play to children’s development, moreover teacher can sign it in detail and explore the education value among it. For the fourth free play,what they should do first is reflection,the second is to accumulate professional knowledge and adjust their teaching behavior to the character of children’s learning.At last,teacher should decrease the negative mood when there is a negative evaluation to protect children’s feeling.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
  • 【分类号】G613.7
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