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幼儿园男教师身份认同困境与对策研究

【作者】 张芳

【导师】 么加利;

【作者基本信息】 西南大学, 教育学原理, 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 随着幼儿教师性别结构失衡问题的愈发严重,社会各界对幼儿园男教师身份认同问题投入了极大关注,并寄希望于通过重塑幼儿园男教师身份认同藉以改善幼儿教师性别结构失衡以促进幼师队伍质量的提升和学前教育的健康发展。2010年中共中央、国务院印发的《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要》指出:“严格执行幼儿教师资格标准,切实加强幼儿教师培养培训,提高幼儿教师队伍整体素质,依法落实幼儿教师地位和待遇。”可知,国家层面非常重视幼儿教师队伍建设的问题。幼儿园男教师作为我国学前教育师资力量的重要组成部分,自教育家陈鹤琴提出学前教育需要男教师以来,在党和国家的殷切关怀下,学前教育事业愈发受到重视,幼儿园男教师的职业优势也日益受到国家、社会及各方人士的关注。可以说,幼儿园男教师培养与就业呈现出一派“欣欣向荣”之势。然而,当前幼儿园男教师身份认同依然面临极大挑战,其现实情境中的生存状态堪忧、流失现象严重,国家花费大量人力物力财力培养出来的男幼师“存活率”极低。若想破解这些制约幼儿园男教师身份认同的瓶颈,必须充分认清幼儿园男教师所在的物理环境、文化环境、心理环境、幼儿园管理制度以及个体教育信念等,然后在此基础上方能设法扫清阻挠幼儿园男教师身份认同的樊篱。提出一套重塑幼儿园男教师身份认同的合理对策,最终实现幼儿教师性别结构平衡和学前教育健康发展的目标。本研究正文共分为四大部分:第一部分是幼儿园男教师身份认同内涵分析与理论探讨,首先,基于对身份认同内涵的分析将幼儿园男教师身份认同困境分为自我认同、社会认同、专业认同。其次,选取四个相关理论统摄全文,作为本研究的理论基础,分别是基于幼儿园男教师身份建构是一种社会化过程与文化的产物,故以社会认同理论作为调查幼儿园男教师身份认同困境的立论基础;幼儿园男教师身份认同作为一种文化规制的产物,选取社会性别理论与文化身份理论作为探究其身份认同。幼儿园男教师身份认同是男教师个体与环境相互作用的结果,也是个体不断自我建构以促进自我实现的过程,故而选取动力场理论及需要层次理论。第二部分是现状及问题分析,揭示幼儿园男教师身份认同困境,在对幼儿园男教师身份认同问题调查基础上,提炼出幼儿园男教师身份认同困境的现实表征。第三部分是问题归因,在社会性别理论、文化身份理论、场论以及需要层次理论的指导下,从社会文化、经济待遇、幼儿园管理体制与个体教育信念等方面入手分析幼儿园男教师身份认同困境产生的原因。第四部分是问题解决,即重塑幼儿园男教师身份认同策略需在社会认同理论指导下,结合心里场论、需要层次理论的基本视角,从引导形成良性社会舆论、提高经济待遇、拓宽话语表达方式和渠道、完善在职培训制度、树立正确职业观等方面创设有利于幼儿园男教师身份认同的环境因素。

【Abstract】 The public has given great attention to identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers as the sex structural disequilibrium of kindergarten teachers becomes more severe, so as to solve the existing problems by reshaping their identities and boost the quality promotion of kindergarten teachers team as well as the healthy development of preschool education. The statements “preschool education has great signification on physical and mental development, habit formation as well as intellectual development of young children. Following the mental and physical development discipline of the young children and adhering to scientific child caring method to ensure healthy and happy growth of the young children and actively develop preschool education,” “strictly implement the kindergarten teacher’s qualification standard, practically strengthen kindergarten teachers’ cultivation and training, improve their overall quality and guarantee their status and treatment in accordance with the law” in the National Medium- and Long-Term Plan for Education Reform and Development issued by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council in 2010 show that the country’s focus on the healthy development of preschool education is based on the resources of kindergarten teachers. Nevertheless, the social background and national conditions which call for vigorous development of preschool education make it impossible to develop preschool education without the stable kindergarten teacher team especially when the identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers has become a critical factor restricting the structure and healthy development of kindergarten teachers. As an important part of our country’s kindergarten teaching force, male kindergarten teachers have received more and more attention and have been presented with unprecedented opportunities for development since educator Chen Heqin proposed the preschool education required male kindergarten teachers. Likewise, both preschool education and the career advantage of male kindergarten teachers have drawn the attention andconcern of the country, the society and all works of life. Therefore, the cultivation and employment of male kindergarten teachers have received a prosperous growth and they,undoubtedly, accept a higher educational level. However, the serious drain of male kindergarten teachers and extremely low “survival rate” of the male teachers cultivated by the country with plenty of manpower, material and financial resources due to their difficult survival condition in reality still restrict the identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers. Those bottleneck constrains can be solved by fully understanding the physical environmental, cultural environment, mental environment, kindergarten management system and the faith of male kindergarten teachers, etc. And the obstacles hindering the identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers can only be eliminated on the above basis to destroy the old and establish the new and propose a reasonable countermeasure for reshaping the identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers, so as to achieve the ultimate goal of sex structural equilibrium of kindergarten teachers and healthy development of preschool education.The body text in this research is divided into four parts altogether. The first part is connotation analysis and theoretical discussion of identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers which consists of two parts. In the first part, the identity recognition dilemma of male kindergarten teachers is divided into self identification,social identification and professional identification based on annotation analysis of identity recognition. In the second part, the four related theories are selected to govern the whole text. As the theoretical basis of the research, social identity theory is used as the argument basis depending on the fact that the identity construction of male kindergarten teachers is the product of socialization process and culture; social gender theory and cultural identity theory are used as the basis for exploring their identities depending on the fact that the identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers is the product of cultural regulation; dynamic filed theory and hierarchy of needs theory are used due to the fact that the identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers is the product of mutual interaction between individual and environment as well as the needs to promote the survival and long-term development of individual male kindergarten teachers. The second part is present situation and problem analysis. In this part, the identity recognition dilemma of male kindergarten teachers is revealed based on the interview of ten male kindergarten teachers and the realistic manifestation of male kindergarten identity issues is extracted based on the investigation of the subject. Thethird part is cause analysis on identity recognition dilemma issue of male kindergarten teachers which is performed from the perspective of social identity theory, cultural identity theory, field theory and hierarchy of needs theory and based on cultural environment, management system of teacher turnover, teacher sources, culture &customs as well as educational objects. The fourth part is problem resolution, i.e., the strategy to reshape the identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers shall be accompanied with theoretical instruction and direction and combined with field theory and hierarchy of needs theory, so as to establish the environmental factor beneficial to the identity process of male kindergarten teachers from material, spiritual level and institutional level. Meanwhile, the fundamental issues which restrict the identity recognition of male kindergarten teachers such as insufficient high-quality sources of male kindergarten teachers, wavering faith in education, etc., can be eliminated from by expanding the supplementary channel of the teachers and strengthening the teacher’s faith in its engagement in education. And the two long-term measures herein can be used to resolve the identity recognition dilemma of male kindergarten teachers.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 西南大学
  • 【分类号】G615
  • 【下载频次】1323
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