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对高二学生电磁学错误概念的调查与分析

【作者】 赵静

【导师】 朱广天;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 物理概念是物理研究者在对客观世界进行感性认识之后,通过头脑对感性材料加工、抽象提炼出来的思维产物,是物理学习的重要环节。20世纪70年代以来,关于学生对物理概念的学习、错误概念的形成以及概念转变的研究成为了物理教育者的关注重点之一,其中以力学领域的研究最为集中。电磁学作为高中物理课程的核心内容之一,一直也是高中物理中的重难点,但相关研究却比较少。本研究借鉴了国外CSEM和BEMA电磁学前概念测试卷,结合国外Peer Interaction课堂关于电磁感应的讨论题。根据上海市物理课程标准对上述测试卷进行改编,编制了高中生电磁学概念问卷,在笔者所在学校以高二选科物理的学生作为问卷发放者。通过前、后两次测试调查研究高二学生在电磁学学习过程中的错误概念。通过数据分析,有以下结论:1.被测学生在前测中表现出在学习高中电磁学概念之前,对电磁学概念知之甚少。因此他们对电磁学概念的建构主要在高中电磁学的课堂教学中。2.高二学生对电磁学的错误概念集中在以下几个方面:(1)认为电荷大的带电体对电荷小的带电体施加更大的力(2)认为负电荷受力的方向即为电场线的方向(3)对电场线的认识停留在书本的图形上,无法在新的情境中进行正确判断(4)容易混淆公式W=qU和W=FS(5)无法通过等势面正确判断电场强度的大小与方向(6)认为通过电流大的导线会对通过电流小的导线施加更大的力(7)对磁体周围的磁场方向认识不清(8)对法拉第定律等相关知识处于识记层面,无法灵活运用于新的问题中3.不同性别学生在前测中的表现没有显著差异。但在后测中男生的平均分高于女生平均分,说明不同性别的学生对电磁学概念的理解存在差异性。女生比男生更容易受文字、已有图形等影响,在逻辑分析和建立模型的能力上低于男生。

【Abstract】 Physical concept is the product of thinking about the processing of perceptual materials and the abstraction of the abstract by physical studies.It’s the important part of physical learning. Since 1970s, research on the students" understanding of physics concept, the formation of the concept and the misconception has become one of the focus studies in international physical education.The research of the mechanics is the most concentrated. As one of the core contents of physical curriculum in senior high school, the electromagnetism has been the important but difficult to student in the high school physics learning. But the related research is relatively small.The investigation uses questionnaire methodology to analyze students’ understanding of electromagnetic misconceptions.This study draws on the CSEM and BEMA electromagnetic proconception questionnaire, combining with the discussion questions in Peer Interaction classroom. We design our questionnaire according to the domestic physics curriculum standard in Shanghai. We choose the students of Grade Two in the senior high school where the researcher works in. The test will be carried out two times, one before the study, another after the study. We draw the following conclusion after data analysis:1.the students, as the previous survey showed, have few electromagnetic conceptions before their study in senior high school. And they construct the concept framework mainly in the class.2.the students have the following misconceptions of electromagnetic:(1)it is considered that an object with a large amount of electricity exerts a greater force on an object that is charged with a small amount of electricity(2)it is considered that the direction of the force of the negative charge is same to the direction of the electric field line(3) the stuedents’ understanding of the electric field line stays on the graph of the book, and they can not make a correct judgment in a new situation(4) it is easy for the students to confuse the formula W= qU and W= FS(5) the magnitude and direction of the electric field intensity can not be correctly judged by the equipotential surface.(6) it is considered that electrified line with a large current will exert a greater force on the conductor with a small current.(7) the student cann’t understand the magnetic field around the magnet.(8) the students’ cognitive level of Faraday’s law and other related knowledge is in a real record level, and can not be flexible in the new problem3. there was no significant difference in the performance of the students of different genders in the previous survey. But in the post test, the average score of boys’ is higher than girls’ average, which shows that the students of different genders have different understanding of the concept of electromagnetism. Girls are more likely to be affected by text, graphics, and so on。 The girls’ ability of logic to analyze and build models is less than boys.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.7
  • 【下载频次】162
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