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中国与西班牙中学教师教育比较研究

【作者】 Eva Ram(?)rez Carpe(?)o

【导师】 黄志成; Javier M. Valle;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 比较教育学, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 随着中国和西班牙的初等教育实现全面入学,其中等教育政策发生了相应变革:初中教育已具备了基础性和义务性的特征,高中教育虽为非义务教育,但接受高中教育日趋普遍。这一变革对教师培养提出了新的要求,随即教师数量和质量之间的冲突开始出现。由于教师教育师资的短缺以及时间的紧迫性,教师职前教育的质量出现下滑,质量标准参差不齐,对中学教师教育的重要性、教师的职业地位以及教师的职业化都带来了一定程度的负面影响。除了教师数量的扩展之外,过去几十年来中国和西班牙的中学教师教育都面临其他挑战,即必须适应现代技术的发展和社会需求的变化,其中全球化的影响、对国际组织事务的参与、教师质量评估的实施、作为跨国组织的成员等,都要求对教师教育做出相应改革。西班牙作为欧盟的成员国之一,实施了以“欧洲教育行动区”为指导的高等教育改革;而中国的整个教育体系开始越来越现代化,并逐渐向世界开放。此外,中学教师职前教育必须做出调整以适应新的劳动力市场的需求,即知识的传递仅仅成为教师职责一部分。在此背景下,教师教育亟需培养必要的能力以满足诸多职业责任的要求。然而,教育制度的变革和社会需求的变化往往不同步。基于上述原因,本文的研究对于目前的国家、跨国以及世界三个层面的教师教育政策都具有一定的意义。本研究主要有三个目标:1.从现实背景出发分析和讨论中国和西班牙的中等教师教育制度;2.分析中国和西班牙教师教育制度的异同,并总结中等教师教育发展的国际趋势;3.在以上分析的基础上,为西班牙教师职前教育改革提出建议。本研究使用比较研究方法,探索中国和西班牙教师教育制度的制定,包括制度和方针课程设计、职业能力建构、教师资格认定和招生等方面。除此之外,本研究将国家层面的研究结果与跨国以及世界的教师教育质量趋势相结合,进行国家、跨国和世界三个层面的分析。本研究遵循提出问题和假设——界定——描述和阐释——比较以及应用的比较研究方法,通过对原始文献进行分析,总结教师教育的数量和质量标准。根据研究目标本文共分八章。导论部分指出了本研究的主题、意义以及论文的结构和基本观点。第二章对研究方法做了说明,提出了研究假设、研究目标和研究问题。第三章阐释了主要概念和内容,并对教师职业地位、职业化和身份认同等与教师教育相关的关键文献做了分析,并从跨国的视角对“质量”做了概念解析。第四章讨论了中国和西班牙的教育概况,对教育制度、中等教育制度、家庭在教育中的角色、学生与教师的关系等。第五章从两国的教师教育的历史演变和当前困境开始,界定了中国和西班牙中等教育的关键概念。最后根据本文的研究需要对跨国质量指标做了筛选。第六章分析了中国和西班牙教师教育的现实背景,重点从教师收入、任务和时间分配、学生的学习时间及其学习成绩等几个方面讨论了教师工作环境的异同。中国所面临的最大挑战是幅员辽阔、人口众多,平均收入较低,但是教师收入存在交大的地区差异;西班牙的教师平均收入较高且有最低工资保障,但失业率也较高。两国教育支出所占GDP的比例相近。第七章分析了中等教师职前教育并指出了两国的差异:西班牙的教师职前教育具备高度的一致性,而中国则具有高度的灵活性。两国在教师职前教育的课程设置中都增加了教育学类课程的学分,都将教师职前教育作为未来教师职业发展的初始阶段。两国都非常重视教师的职业能力,并且依据学生前一阶段的学业成绩招生。两国的大部分教育政策都与跨国组织的政策建议保持同步。第八章对研究结果做了总结,并根据研究框架对西班牙的教师教育改革提出了建议。在制度和路径方面,教师教育可以招收具有不同背景的生源,但需保持在高等教育水平;在课程设计方面,重新检讨国家的教师职前教育课程标准,增加实践教学和教学时数、重新组织学科体系;在职业能力方面,为了保持教育立法和教师职业之间的一致性,需鼓励终身学习、教师的职业认同塑造以及公民责任的培养;在教师资格方面,可以认可其他职业经历,并在初中和高中两个教师职前教育阶段做出区分;在招生方面扩大行动面,以求遴选更为合适的生源,并能塑造其强烈的教师职业认同。

【Abstract】 The achievement of full rates of enrolment in primary education in China and Spain has progressively led to national policies that include junior secondary education as basic and compulsory. This has gradually opened access to senior secondary education to the majority of the population. At present, the access of the masses to senior secondary education is assumed as the regular path for most students, though it is not part of compulsory education.This progression entails a large demand of teachers for both levels, and a pull between quality and quantity. Due to teacher shortages and lack of time to prepare them, teachers’ initial education programmes have traditionally been of low quality and uneven standards, varying with each university. This dynamic of noxious feedback between teachers with low preparation, a high social demand for teachers and scarce structures of teacher education, has for years affected the importance that national policies placed on initial teacher education for secondary teachers, as well as the status of teachers and the professionalization of the role.Over the past few decades, besides dealing with this development and expansion, secondary teachers’initial education has had to confront numerous challenges in both countries. Teacher education programmes have had to adapt to modern technologies and to the changes within their own societies, to globalization, international organizations’ agendas, quality assessments or countries’ membership of supranational organizations hence needing to adhere to certain requirements and principles, and so forth. On one side, Spain became a member of the European Union and reformed its tertiary education to match the European Higher Education Area guidelines. On the other, China started opening up to the international field and modernized its whole education system.In addition, secondary teachers’ initial education has had to reinvent itself and cope with a new labour paradigm where the transmission of knowledge is only a negligible part of teachers’ responsibilities. In this setting, teaching professionals are bound to develop certain professional competencies necessary to manage a wider range of abilities, knowledge, tools and strategies. Nevertheless, official programmes and social and education needs often develop in uneven rhythms. The combination of these elements makes the topic of this dissertation a relevant issue in current national, supranational and international policies and agendas.In the complexity of this context, this research pursues three general objectives: General Objective 1:To understand and analyse, under a contextualized framework, the main elements of secondary teachers’ initial education systems in two countries: China and Spain. General Objective 2:To detect convergences and divergences between Chinese and Spanish secondary teachers’ initial education systems, as well as possible international trends and guidelines in secondary teachers’ initial education. General Objective 3:To propose possible reforms in the Spanish model of teachers’ initial education in the context of the international trends detected.In particular, the study was carried out using a comparative methodology to explore how each country plans their programmes in terms of institutions and paths, curriculum design, professional competencies, qualifications and student selection.Besides this, the research analyses both countries’ tendencies, and triangulates the results with supranational and international quality guidelines.Qualitative and quantitative indicators, mainly from primary sources, were organized following the steps of the comparative education method (identification of the problem and hypotheses, delimitation of the research, description and interpretation, juxtaposition and comparison, and application). The organization of the comparison categories, parameters and indicators is shown in the methodology chapter.The thesis is organized in eight chapters revolving around the General Objectives, following a symmetrical structure between chapters, sections and subsections. The first chapter introduces the topic, justifies its significance and offers a general overview of the structure of die thesis. The second explains the methodological approach, establishing the hypotheses, research objectives and questions. The third analyses the main notions and key elements of the study, reviews relevant literature and links this study to teachers’ status, professionalization and identity, intrinsic components of the teaching profession. This chapter also tackles the concept of quality from an international and supranational point of view.The fourth chapter describes the general context of each country, detailing the general educative system, secondary education system, role of families, students and teachers, and the academic relationship between the two countries. Chapter Five defines and applies the key concepts of the specific units of analysis. It starts with a historical introduction on teachers’ initial education in both countries and examines contemporary dilemmas.Then, the study discusses secondary teachers’initial education, including a section on legislation and a section for each of the comparison categories in relation to secondary teachers’education (institutions and paths, curriculum design, professional competencies, qualifications and student selection). Finally, it includes a selection of international and supranational quality indicators regarding the problem of the study.Chapters Six and Seven present and contextualize the juxtaposition of the research when contrasting data from both national contexts and international plans.On one hand, Chapter Six tackles general settings and highlights the divergences and convergences in teachers’ working conditions, not only in terms of salaries, but in tasks and time distribution, and the time students invest in education and their academic results. For example, some of the findings illustrate the great challenges for China to manage such a large territory and population, with lower salaries for its citizens and where salaries for its teachers principally depend on the geographical area. In contrast, Spain has higher average and minimum salaries, but a higher unemployment rate. Despite these difficulties both nations allocate a similar percentage of their GDP to education.On the other hand, Chapter Seven focuses on secondary teachers’initial education and mainly stress a high level of harmonization in Spain and high flexibility in China. Both countries show a tendency towards the increment of pedagogy credits in the curriculum and the conceptualization of teachers’ initial education as a first step to further harmonizing their career development. Both countries give high relevance to teachers’ competencies and in both nations, student selection is only linked to the students’academic results at a previous stage. The findings also demonstrate how most of the national policies in these two countries are aligned with international and supranational suggestions.The last chapter presents a summary of the findings in terms of conclusions, including a practical application with recommendations for Spain. After the conclusions and application is a section on the potentials and limits of the research as well as some proposals for further research agendas.The practical application of the findings is categorized in terms of the comparative categories of the research. For example, in institutions and paths the study recommends higher flexibility to open the career to different profiles but stresses the importance of keeping the degree in tertiary’ education; in curriculum design, the proposals are on rethinking national guidelines, increasing the practicum and length of the degree, and the reorganization of subjects and fields; in professional competencies, for the sake of consistency between education legislation and teachers’professional careers, dimensions that could be encouraged are, for instance, lifelong learning, teachers’identity and social responsibility; in relation to teachers’qualification, the study proposals are to take into account other professional experience or reconsidering the possibility to grant a specialization in one of the two stages of secondary education; and in the last section, the selection of students for secondary teachers’initial education programmes, the proposals stress more comprehensive dynamics that could help to select appropriate candidates and to create a pool of teachers with a strong identity.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G635.1
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