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学校危机形成的制度原因探析

【作者】 黄丽

【导师】 马和民;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 教育学原理, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 本研究试图重点探讨的是这样一个问题,即:导致当代我国学校危机产生的制度原因是什么?围绕这一核心研究问题,分解为以下几个具体问题:为什么需要继续研究学校危机问题?当代我国学校危机的现实表现及其后果都有哪些?为什么需要从制度层面重新对学校危机问题进行剖析?是哪些制度性问题引发了我国当代学校危机?又是什么原因导致了这些制度性问题的产生?什么样的思路和策略有助于摆脱当代我国的学校危机?本研究以新闻媒体、网络资源报道等诸多社会事实和官方及其媒体网站公布的统计数据为研究案例,运用新制度主义制度分析视角探索当代我国学校教育所遭遇到的制度困境以及形成学校危机的制度性根源。综合运用文献研究、个案研究、问卷调查、访谈和比较研究等方法,力图揭示当代我国学校教育系统所面临的危机及其造成的严重后果,探索导致学校危机产生的核心制度根源,以找到化解和治理学校危机的最佳策略。本研究得出如下结论:第一,当代我国学校教育正遭遇学校危机。案例研究表明:当代我国学校危机事件频发,以及由此所带来的学生伤亡造成严重的家庭困境和师生、生生关系恶化造成的学校困境,并由此更加剧了风险社会的社会困境。由学校危机所导致的严重后果已引发媒体、政策和学术等社会各界的广泛关注。面对这些问题,政府颁布各项学校危机管理政策法规以及紧急通报,但仍不能彻底根治学校危机问题。第二,当代我国学校危机潜藏着诸多教育制度失范。当代学校是一种制度性的存在,学校教育是一种制度性活动,制度化是学校教育的重要特征。由制度化的学校教育带来的对学生的过度规训,导致了当代学生的体质普遍下降以及妨碍学生品性发展,造成了学生生活与社会生活的严重分离等后果。而这些后果也正是学校危机在社会现实中具体的重要表现。第三,当代我国教育制度的合法性、合理性和伦理性问题引发了学校教育的制度失范。由学校安全教育制度表面化和形式化的制度执行、分级办学制度带来的教育资源分配不平等的城乡差异以及校长负责制度的权利异化造成了学校制度的合法性问题;教育制度的合理性问题主要体现在选拔性考试制度和重点学校制度下带来的由学校教育中过重的学业负担和知识学习造成的学生身心健康状况令人堪忧的社会现状、学校教育对学生的单项制约造成的脱离具体情境的师生交往关系以及社会关系的不平等;教育制度的伦理性问题主要体现在学校安全教育制度里生命教育的缺失、应试教育制度下学校安全管理的异化以及学校管理制度中过多且细的效果量化考核。第四,当代我国教育制度的合法性、合理性和伦理性问题导致了我国教育价值缺失的效率秩序的形成。由前面对当代我国教育制度失范的社会事实分析及其与教育秩序的关系可知,学校危机的产生正是我国社会转型时期教育秩序失序的社会现实表现。而构建促进学校教育健康发展的良好秩序依赖于制度环境的整体构建,为此,摆脱学校危机的根本保障在于治理我国学校教育制度规范。其理念治理的要点包括:在教育实践中重建凸显人的生命为核心的制度规范和重建凸显教育正义为核心的制度伦理,以期重建教育秩序。

【Abstract】 This study attempts to focus on such a problem, that is:what is the system root cause of contemporary school crisis in China? This research will further be divided into the following several specific topics:why need to continue to study the school crisis? What are the actual performance of contemporary crisis in our school and its consequences? Why do I need to analyze from the system level to the school crisis? What are the institutional problems caused by China’s contemporary school crisis? What is the cause of these institutional problems? What kind of ideas and strategies helps to get rid of our contemporary school crisis?In this study, news media, network resources, many social facts and official and media website published statistics as a case study, the use of new institutionalism institutional analysis perspective to explore the contemporary school education in our country experienced the plight of the system and the formation of the origin of the system of school crisis. Integrated use of literature research, case research, questionnaire investigation, interview and comparative study method, trying to reveal the crisis faced by contemporary Chinese school education system and the serious consequences caused by seeking leads to the core issue of school crisis and institutional origin. Conclusions of this study are as follows:First, the contemporary school education in China is facing the school crisis. Case studies show that the contemporary school crisis events in China frequently, and thus brought about by the student casualties caused serious family difficulties, school dilemmas caused by teachers and students relations deteriorated, and thus exacerbated the risk society of social dilemmas. The serious consequences caused by the school crisis has caused widespread concern in the media, policy and academic circles. Faced with these problems, the government has issued a regulation policy of the school crisis management and emergency notification, but will not completely cure the school crisis.Second, the crisis of contemporary Chinese schools in hiding a lot of education system anomie. The school is a kind of system existence, school education is a kind of system, system is an important feature of school education. By the institutionalization of school education on students’ excessive punishment and discipline, resulting in the contemporary students of the general decline in physical fitness and hinder the development of students’ character, causing serious separation of student life and the social life of the serious consequences. And these consequences are also the school crisis in the social reality of the specific important performance.Third, the legitimacy, rationality and ethics anomie of the educational system in our country cause the problem of the system of school education. The legitimacy crisis of the school system caused by the school safety education system under the surface execution, formal system of grading education system under the unequal distribution of educational resources between urban and rural areas and the right of alienation under the principal responsibility system; rationality crisis education system by now in school education include physical and mental health of students is worrying for students caused by overloaded schoolwork and knowledge learning, individual school education system constraints caused by the detachment of the specific situation of communication between teachers and students and social relations is not equal under the selective examination system the weight of school; the education system ethics crisis reflected the lack of life education in the alienation of school safety education, the examination oriented education system in school safety management and the excessive and quantitative assessment in school management.Fourth, the consequence of validity, rationality and the ethical problems of the educational system in our country lead to formation of the lack of efficiency and educational value order. By the analysis of the social fact of the current education system in our country, can be seen, the root causes of the crisis of the school is in the order of education. To this end, the fundamental guarantee to get rid of the school crisis lies in the reconstruction of the educational order. And building a good order to promote the healthy development of school education depends on the overall construction of the system environment. The main points of governance include:the reconstruction of human life in educational practice is the core of the system specification as reconstruction of educational justice is the core of the system norms.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G521
  • 【下载频次】437
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