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台湾《幼儿园教保活动课程大纲》施行之课程转化 ——基于两所公立幼儿园的叙事探究取向

【作者】 林思骐

【导师】 郭力平;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 学前教育学, 2017, 博士

【副题名】基于两所公立幼儿园的叙事探究取向

【摘要】 台湾《课程大纲》出台,教师在从理解到实践的转化过程产生许多困惑,成为课程发展的关键议题。过去的《幼稚园课程标准》有较重「既定」课程性质,但《课程大纲》倡导的有课程架构的萌发与教学活化导向,让原先台湾幼儿教育在「既定」与「萌发」课程扦隔不入的问题凸显出来,产生一种既定与萌发调合式需求。而课程就是叙事文本的观点也让「说故事」成为课程转化过程的主要特性。因此,本研究主要探究二个公立幼儿园在《课程大纲》政策下课程改革所呈现出来的生活及其现象,并进一步诠释其背后蕴涵的课程意义。分析《课程大纲》于幼儿园施行中在「课程理解」到「课程实践」之间的转化,了解教师理解课程内涵对「既定课程」与「萌发课程」的使用情形及师生实际生活经验的说故事课程,对于课程改革的实践有何转变或启示等议题。本研究将叙事探究作为方法论,并融合其他研究技术,包括文献搜集与文件分析、参与式观察、访谈法、实物分析法等研究方法进行研究,在自然、真实的情境中,观察记录二所公立幼儿园班级之教师与幼儿在《课程大纲》政策下之课程实作。研究结论如下一、《课程大纲》政策导引教师的「理解课程」与「课程发展」作为(一)教师赞同《课程大纲》本质,但对课程意涵的诠释因理解而有差异。(二)《课程大纲》确有导引课程发展作用,但关注点与导引方式有所差异。(三)教师均认为实践式社群与生活社区经验是理解《课程大纲》的关键。(四)《课程大纲》会引发教师有新课程行动与关注幼儿行为改变。二、《课程大纲》有助于调和教师对「既定课程J与「萌发课程」的使用思维(一)《课程大纲》可协助导引教师教学执行与调整教学设计,但运作有差异。(二)《课程大纲》课程知识皆有社区化在地生活与六大领域,但课程架构有所差异。(三)《课程大纲》导引教师真正认知幼儿能力发展与展现,但评量与辅导方式有所差异。三、师生实际生活经验的说故事课程,对于课程改革的实践之转变与启示(一)随着《课程大纲》政策的推动,有助于教师认真思考幼儿日常生活经验及其复杂性,可使课程发展有新面貌。(二)说故事的叙说式课程让课程有更多合作的机会。最后,研究者根据研究结论,提出相关建议:一、累积丰富的《课程大纲》转化教学案例,导引教师反思成长而有深刻课程意识。二、运用教学推理方式导引课程转化并促进课程发展的合理性。三、建立社区生活的学习者/教师共同体可能是理解《课程大纲》的最佳方式。四、《课程大纲》应导引教师叙说而觉醒,进而觉知”看到儿童”。五、《课程大纲》可导引建立园所学习支持系统,而促成课程实践理论化与教师再学习。六、以区域共学圈的特色课程,建立课程实践文化性。七、叙说式自传文本可以是幼儿教育评量与辅导的核心。八、以课程再概念化来培养幼儿教育教师的课程实施与转化能力。九、以说故事的叙说方式来导引未来的幼儿教育课程。

【Abstract】 After the proclamation of "Curriculum Guideline for Preschool Care-taking Activities" Policy in Taiwan, teachers have been much perplexed during the transformation from understanding a curriculum to putting one into practice, which becomes a core issue of this policy. "Preschool curriculum standards" in the past had more characteristics of "Established Curriculum". The curriculum guideline policy, however, focuses on characteristics such as emerging and reviving, which brings out the contradiction between "Established Curriculum" and "Emergent Curriculum" and highlights a need of coordination between these two types of curriculums. Subsequently, the main focus of this curriculum transformation is the idea of "story-telling", i.e. seeing curriculum as a narrative.Accordingly, this thesis examines the daily situation and differences of two preschools after the reform of the policy, and interprets the pedagogical implications behind it. Furthermore, this thesis analyzes the transformation from "understanding a curriculum" to "putting one into practice" in preschools and illustrates the correlations between how much teachers understand the content of the policy and what changes and inspirations of curriculum reforms the policy has created, in terms of the use of established curriculum and emergent curriculum, story-telling curriculum with life experiences shared by students and teachers, the practices of curriculum reforms, etc.This thesis adopted narrative inquiry as the main methodology, and meanwhile utilized other approaches such as document analysis, observation, interview, and empirical analysis. By these means, it detailed the practices of the Guideline policy in these two public preschools.The result showed that:Firstly, the curriculum guideline policy provided instructions for teachers regarding "curriculum understanding" and "curriculum development"1. Teachers all agreed the significance of the guideline, but in some extent disagreed with and interpreted differently about the pedagogical implication of the policy.2. The policy certainly provided guidance for curriculum development.3. For teachers, two key points to understand the Guideline were community of practices and community life experiences.4. The guideline triggered teachers to have new curriculum activities and to follow children’s behavior changes.Secondly, guideline was crucial for teachers’thinking to coordinate established curriculum and emergent curriculum.1. The guideline assisted teachers to better execute teaching and adjust curriculum design.2. In the guideline, the part of curriculum knowledge contained six major areas and the content related to community and local life, but there were disparities among teachers as to the part of curriculum structure.3. The guideline gave guidance for teachers to truly spot the development and demonstration of children’s ability.Thirdly, the story-telling course with life experiences shared by students and teachers brings changes and inspirations for the practices of curriculum reforms.1. The implementation of the guideline was beneficial for teachers to ponder children’s life experiences and its complexity, which make curriculum more likely to have new development.2. The narrative of story-telling curriculum provided more chances to collaborate.Lastly, based on aforementioned conclusions, this thesis suggests:1. Accumulate abundant cases related to guideline so as to stimulate teachers as to self-reflection and depth curriculum awareness.2. Use pedagogical reasoning skills for curriculum transformation and to assist the reasonableness of curriculum development.3. Build up collaborative groups for learners and teachers as the best possible way to understand the guideline.4. The guideline shall act as the role of guiding teachers to have more self-narratives and have the awakening of "seeing children."5. Establish a learning support system of the guideline in the campus which facilitates both the practices of curriculum theory and re-learning for teachers.6. Use special curriculum based on regional co-learning groups to make curriculum as cultural practices.7. Make narrative autobiographical text as the crux for evaluation and guidance of preschool education.8. Use the idea of curriculum re-conceptualization to cultivate preschool teachers’ability to execute and transform courses.9. Use story-telling and narratives to shape future preschool courses.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G612
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