【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学， 教育技术学， 2017， 博士
【摘要】 近百年来科学技术飞速发展,科学教育范式也发生了多次改变,总体上呈现了从“知识取向”到“探究取向”的转变。从各国官方发布的科学教育标准和指导框架等报告中可以发现,让学生开展科学探究学习已成为世界各国科学教育的主旋律。然而,诸多研究表明,我国科学教育实践中探究学习开展的情况并不乐观,普遍存在探究形式化、学生主动性不够、探究情境真实性不足等一系列问题,从而制约了学生科学探究能力的培养和提升。现代信息技术的快速发展及其在教育领域的普及和推广,特别是虚拟仿真技术的日益成熟,在某种程度上能够化解探究学习开展的困难和障碍,使课堂环境下难以实施的探究学习活动得以实施,从而提升探究学习的效果。本论文研究的核心内容是科学教育中技术如何使能探究学习开展及其主要影响,论文从文献分析、理论建构到实证研究,层层递进,逐步细化,围绕以下四个主要的研究问题： (1)科学教育中探究学习的内涵是什么?(2)探究学习中技术使能的作用空间(功能范畴)何在?(3)典型探究学习环境是如何设计的,其功能特点与使用效果如何?(4)虚拟世界如何使能探究学习的开展,以及对学习结果的影响如何?论文首先对科学教育中的探究学习相关理论进行了系统的梳理,包括探究学习的定义和特征、典型模式、探究层次与一般过程要素,综述了相关实证研究状况和研究发现,并分析了我国基础教育中探究学习开展的实践困境。其次,在对信息技术教学价值思考的基础上,提出了技术使能的探究学习的定义和内涵,并在相关学习理论的指导下分析了探究学习中技术使能的作用空间。进而,采用案例研究的方法对国内外已有的探究学习环境案例及其研究成果进行了调研和分析,并在案例分析的基础上优化了探究学习中技术使能的作用空间模型。最后,鉴于国内缺乏虚拟世界使能的探究学习实证研究,本研究针对Omosa虚拟世界使能的探究学习,采用混合研究的方法在S市两所中学开展了为期1年半的实证研究。研究分为第一轮探索性研究(T中学)和第二轮正式研究(L中学),通过课堂观察、访谈等形式收集质性数据,通过问卷收集量化数据。研究聚焦于虚拟世界使能的科学探究学习开展的方式,以及学生在科学探究能力、知识建构和科学态度三个维度上的学习产出及其影响因素。通过对Omosa课程实施过程的回顾和思考,基于人类学视角的情境学习理论,笔者认为,虚拟世界使能的探究学习本质上是学生在科学探究实践活动中合法的边缘性参与。Omosa虚拟世界为课堂中的科学探究实践创设了真实且有意义的问题情境和探索空间,学生可以在虚拟世界中漫游探索,观察、调查以获取数据。科学探究知识涉及到科学探究能力的形成与发展,属于默会知识的范畴。在Omo sa课程中,学生的探究学习发生在Omosa岛上的科学探究实践中,随着“学生科学家”角色的不断变化,通过实践逐渐领会和掌握科学探究默会知识,从而实现探究能力的提升。教师作为科学探究实践共同体的一员,适时地提供脚手架能够帮助学生克服开放式探究学习过程中遇到的困难,从而提高探究学习产出。就虚拟世界使能的探究学习产出而言,通过数据分析发现：(1)在探究能力提升方面,通过对科学探究问卷前后测数据的配对T检验发现,使用Omosa虚拟世界的实验班在科学探究过程和要素的理解上得分有显著性提高(t=3.11,df=49,p=.003)。问卷内容涉及科学家和科学研究工作、研究假设、实验设计、观察和推论、科学测量、实验设计与假设检验的关系、科学研究结果图表表达等方面的题目。通过散点图与相关分析发现,学生在基于Omosa的探究学习过程中的自我效能感会影响学生对个入学习情况的自我评价,但相关程度并不显著；自我效能感与学生探究能力提升之间呈现出一定的负相关；学生的学业成绩与自评分数之间不存在明显的相关关系,与学生探究能力变化之间也没有明显的相关性。然而,部分常规课程中的“学困生”,在基于Omosa虚拟世界的探究学习过程中表现出很高的学习积极性,在前后测科学探究问卷得分的变化上反映出了他们良好的学业表现。(2)在知识建构方面,Omosa探究课程的学习内容是围绕生态系统这个主题展开的,问卷调查结果和学生作业反映出Omosa探究课程有助于学生对生态系统相关科学知识的建构。(3)在情感态度和价值观方面,研究数据还显示,Omosa探究课程有利于帮助学生正确认识科学家的科学实践活动,养成良好的科学态度。
【Abstract】 With the continuous development of science and technology, science education paradigm has gone through many changes. Generally, it has shown a tendency of changing from "knowledge-oriented" to "inquiry-oriented". It can be found from the official science education standards and guidance frameworks published by many countries that allowing students to carry out scientific inquiry learning has become the main trend of science education worldwide. However, numerous studies have shown that the implementation of inquiry learning in science education practice is not optimistic. It can be explained for a series of problems like the formalism of inquiry, students’ lack of autonomy, the inquiry environment’s seperation from the real world... These are problems which constrain the development and improvement of students’ scientific inquiry skills. On the other hand, the rapid development of information technology and its application in education, especially the gradual maturity of virtual simulation technology, may offer a way to overcome the difficulties and obstacles in inquiry learning, and the inquiry learning activities which are often difficult to carry out in real classroom can thus turn to be much more practicable, consequently enhancing the efficiency of inquiry learning.The core research of this dissertation is to learn how technology enables the inquiry learning to be implemented in science education and its main impacts. From the literature review to the theory framework construction, and further to the empirical study, this dissertation represents the research work in a progressive way and shows the refinement step by step. Four main research questions below have been studied:1) what’s the connotation of inquiry learning in science education? 2) What’s the Function Space (functional dimension) of technology to enable scientific inquiry learning? (3)How are the typical inquiry learning environment cases been designed and how do they work, what are their effects? (4) How virtual world enables the implementation of inquiry learning and what are its impacts on learning outcomes?Firstly, the dissertation has made a systematic study on the theories related to the inquiry learning, including its definition and characteristics, its typical pattern, inquiry levels and the general elements through its implementation. A review has been made on the actual status of the empirical studies and their findings. Analysis has been done on the practical problems met through the implementation of inquiry study in China’s basic education. Secondly, the definition and connotation of technology enabled inquiry learning have been proposed based on the reflection of the information technology teaching value. And analysis has been made about the function space of technology to enable inquiry learning under the related learning theories. Furthermore, studies and analysis have been taken out on the existing cases of inquiry learning environment and their research findings, by the method of case study. The function space was optimized based on the findings of case study. Finally, as there’s a lack of empirical research about the inquiry learning enabled by virtual world in China, this research focuses on the technology based inquiry study of virtual world Omosa, and carries out an empirical study in two middle schools of S City for one and a half year by a mixed research method. Two rounds of research have been taken place, first round as the exploratory study (T Secondary School) and the second one as the formal study (L Secondary School). Qualitative data has been collected through the classroom observation, interviews and other forms, quantitative data has been collected by questionnaires. The research focuses on the ways that the technology enabled inquiry study of virtual world has been carried out, as well as the students’outcomes on the dimensions of exploring ability, construction of knowledge and scientific attitude, and their potential reasons.Based on the situated learning theory of anthropological perspective, through the review and reflection of the implementation of Omosa, we believe that the nature of the science inquiry learning enabled by Omosa virtual world is the students’legitimate peripheral participation in scientific inquiry practice. Omosa virtual world creates real and meaningful problem situations and exploration space for students, who can roam in the virtual world to explore, observe, and make surveys to gather data. Scientific inquiry knowledge involves the formation and development of scientific inquiry skills, which is in the scope of tacit knowledge. In Omosa course, students’inquiry learning occurs through their scientific inquiry practice on the island Omosa. With the changing of "student scientist" role, students gradually understand and master the tacit knowledge of scientific inquiry, and thus enhance their inquiry skills. Teachers as one member of scientific inquiry community, providing scaffolding in time, can help students overcome difficulties in the open inquiry learning process, so as to improve inquiry learning outcomes.In the aspect of learning outcomes of the inquiry learning enabled by Omosa virtual world, we have made the following findings through data analysis:(1) In terms of the improvement of inquiry skills, the T test of the data collected from questionnaires before and after the scientific inquiry showed that, the experimental class which used Omosa virtual world has achieved a significant progress on the items of the understanding of the process and the elements of scientific inquiry (t=3.11, df= 49, p=.003). The questionnaire concerned the scientists and scientific research, hypothesis, experimental design, observation and inference, scientific measurement, the relationship between experimental design and hypothesis testing, the presentation of scientific findings by chart. The related analysis found that students’ sense of self-efficacy through the inquiry-based learning of Omosa can affect students’ individual learning self-assessment, but there is no significant correlation. There is slight negative correlation between self-efficacy and inquiry skills improvement. Also, there is no significant correlation between the exam score and self-assessment, neither the inquiry skills improvement. However, students with learning difficulties in regular classes have been active during the inquiry learning program, and have shown great improvements through the scientific inquiry learning, which indicates their good academic performance. (2) In terms of knowledge construction, the learning content of Omosa is about the theme of ecosystems, the survey results and student work reflect that Omosa course can help students construct the knowledge about ecological system. (3) In terms of attitudes and values, the research data also shows that Omosa can help students to get a correct understanding of scientists’ scientific practice, and to form a good attitude towards science.
【Key words】 science education； inquiry learning； technology enabled； inquiry learning environment； virtual world；
- 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学