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青少年间接互惠行为探索 ——以西安某中学初二、高二年级学生为例

【作者】 马继昌

【导师】 席居哲;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2017, 硕士

【副题名】以西安某中学初二、高二年级学生为例

【摘要】 互惠行为对个体的社会性发展具有重要的意义,互惠分为直接互惠和间接互惠。随着互联网+时代的发展,人类的沟通交往中,间接互惠行为的比例逐渐增加。间接互惠行为指的是社会中个体在与其他陌生个体一次交互中的合作行为,其分为上行互惠和下行互惠两种类型。目前,关于间接互惠行为的研究多见于国外研究者,上行互惠行为多采用“爱心传递任务”范式进行研究,而下行互惠行为多采用“第三方利他任务”范式进行研究。基于国外研究者的研究,身为教师,认为“国内青少年是否存在间接互惠行为,及其间接互惠行为受什么因素影响”的问题值得探究。本研究模拟经济决策的情境,以西安市某中学初二、高二96名学生(其中:高二学生46名,男24名,女22名;初二学生50名,男24名,女26名)为参与者,分别设计“爱心传递”和“第三方利他”两类任务,采用纸笔测试,对青少年群体的上行互惠与下行互惠行为进行探索。研究结果发现,在“爱心传递”任务中,无论是初中组还是高中组,被试在接受到他人平等分配时(相较不平等分配)传递给第三方的数额更多,且传递数额显著大于0,由此说明初、高中学生群体中存在上行互惠行为。在两种分配条件下,初高中组传递给第三方的数额均不存在显著差异,即上行互惠行为在初、高中学生群体间不存在年龄差异,仅受分配方式的影响。“第三方利他”任务中,无论是初中组还是高中组,被试在面对不平等分配时(相较平等分配)显著提高了惩罚(第一方)以及帮助(第二方)行为的概率,由此说明下行互惠行为在初、高中学生群体中的存在。青少年群体的下行互惠行为(以决策行为比例、传递数额为指标)主要受到个体被对待方式(也即分配方式)的影响。除此之外,下行互惠行为也受到其他因素,诸如年级和分配方式交互作用的影响。具体表现为:高中组被试的同情关怀水平和分配方式×同情关怀对于惩罚决策行为有显著影响,即高中组学生的随着同情关怀水平的提升,相较于20/20分配,高中学生在35/5分配下更倾向于选择惩罚,而初中生在面对不公平分配(35/5)时相较公平分配(20/20)时更倾向于选择“保持”,同时,初中生在面临公平分配时,相比于高中被试,显著提高了惩罚的概率。初中组被试在不公平分配情况下,相较于高中组被试,传递的数额更多。本研究表明,在青少年群体中存在间接互惠行为,并且不同年龄段青少年在特定的间接互惠行为间存在差异。本研究揭示了间接互惠行为在青少年群体中存在的广泛性,为间接互惠行为的研究扩充了样本,并为未来探究青少年间接互惠行为的产生机制打下基础。

【Abstract】 Reciprocal behavior has important meanings to the social development of individual.Reciprocity insists of direct and indirect reciprocity. With the development of the Internet+ Times, the proportion of indirect reciprocal behaviors in human communication has been increasing.Indirect reciprocity behavior refers to individual interaction with strangers in society. Indirect reciprocity behavior can be divided into two types:upstream and downstream reciprocity.At present, the study on indirect reciprocity is more common in foreign researchers, whether there is indirect reciprocity behavior among domestic adolescents. and what factors influence the indirect reciprocity behavior, which is a topic of interest to teachers.The study uses economic decision-making situation to explore adolescents’ indirect reciprocity in a middle and high school in Xi’an.96 middle and high school students (46 High School students,24 male,22 female;50 Middle School students, male 24, female 26) participate in two tasks:"Pay It Forward" task (i.e., the upstream reciprocity) and "Third Party Altruism"task (i.e., the downstream reciprocal).We found that in "Pay It Forward" task, both middle and high school subjects assigned more to a third party when they received equal distribution (compared to the unequal distribution),and their pass amout was more than 0 MU.We concluded that the upstream reciprocal behavior exists in the high school and middle school students. In both distribution conditions(35/5 and 20/20), middle and high school group’s pass amount does not exist significant differences, i.e., there is no difference between different groups as to the upstream reciprocity behavior. Further exploratory analysis found that high school group’s pass amount difference was regulated by their empathy concern level.In "Third Party Altruism" task,we found that as the third party, middle and high school groups were more likely to punish the cheater (first party) and help the victim (the second party)when they saw the unequal distribution between others. We concluded that the downstream reciprocal behavior exists in the high school and middle school students.In both distribution conditions, the probability of punishment (first party) and help (the second party) exsisted no significantly difference, that is to say, there is no between group difference as to adolescents’ downstream reciprocity behavior. In addition, downward reciprocity is also influenced by other factors, such as grade and distributional interactions. Comparing with the 20/20 allocation, the high school students are more likely to choose "punish" as the increase of empathy concern level in 35/5 allocation, and middle school students are more likely to choose "keep" in the unfair distribution (35/5) than in fair distribution (20/20). The probability of punishment in middle school students was significantly improved when compared to the high school subjects when they were fairly distributed. In the case of unfair distribution, participants in the middle school group were more likely to transfer more than those in the high school group.The study showed that the existence of indirect reciprocity behavior in adolescents, and there is no group difference between middle and high school subjects. The study revealed the existence of indirect reciprocity among adolescents as well as built strong base for further research on adolescents’indirect reciprocity behavior.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】B844.2
  • 【下载频次】40
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