【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学， 教育史， 2017， 博士
【Abstract】 The insufficiency of student guidance in Chinese schools is a realistic problem deserves our reflection. At prensent, the developmental student guidance has been incorporated into development plan of our high schools, but how to practice still need to explore and learn from the advanced experience. The development of student guidance in American schools has many experiences deserve learn from and think about, but the research on it is still weak.The organized modern student guidance originated in the secondery schools in the United States at the turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries. Early student guidance in American secondery schools was almost equivalent to vocational guidance. After the 1920s, the objectives and content of the student guidance gradually expanded to various aspects, including educatioanal, personal and social issues of students’Before the World War Ⅱ, the student guidance in the K-12 public schools developed slowly across the United States. After World War Ⅱ, with the aid of the federal government’s strong support and active self-construction in the professional field, the guidance in the school is becoming more and more specialization. Moreover, the research and application of guidance theory is becoming more mature. By the 1970s, school guidance and counseling has become a recognized professional body, and the training and certification of school counselors is more standardized and instituionalized.Comprehensive school guidance was gradually accepted and implemented widely in the 1980s as a kind of new organized form of student guidance. By the end of the twentieth century, the comprehensive school guidance program had become the primary organizing and managing method of school guidance in many local school systems in the United States. Initially only some teachers were assigned to work part-time as vocational guidance worker, and now it has developed into a systematic, planned, organized and developmental school guidance project, and become an integral part of the entire school education programs. In the 21st century, improving student achievement and education accountability are the high concern in the school community, so that school guidance and the counselors are also facing new challenges of accountability. Attention to student achievement and counselors’performance has become a new trend of student guidance development in the Unted States.
【Key words】 student guidance； K-12 school in the Unite States； school counseling； historical studies；
- 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学