中国基础教育博硕士论文库

节点文献

二战后美国学校学生指导发展研究

【作者】 曹丽

【导师】 王保星;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 教育史, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 我国学校教育中“学生指导”不足是值得反思的现实问题,当前,学生发展指导已被纳入我国高中教育发展规划,但如何实践尚需探索和借鉴先进经验。美国学校学生指导的发展有许多值得我们借鉴和思考的经验,但国内对此研究还较为薄弱。有组织的现代学生指导发端于19和20世纪之交的美国中学,早期的学生指导几乎等同于职业指导。20世纪20年代之后,因受多种社会运动和教育运动影响,指导的目标和内容逐渐扩展到包括教育和个人及社会问题在内的多个方面。二战之前,学生指导实践在美国各地学校发展缓慢。二战之后,借助联邦政府的大力资助和专业领域内的积极自我构建,学生指导快速趋向专业化,而日益丰富的指导理论研究及其运用,也使学生指导日臻发展成熟。至20世纪70年代,美国学校学生指导和咨询辅导已成为一个被认可的专业主体,学校辅导员的培养和认证也更加规范和制度化。进入20世纪80年代,综合性学校指导项目这一新的学生指导组织形式逐渐被各地学校广泛接受和实施。至20世纪末,综合性学校指导项目已成为美国各地方学校系统组织和管理学校指导和咨辅项目的最主要方式。最初只是分派教师兼职去做学生的职业指导工作,现在已发展成为一种系统的、有计划、有组织的发展性学生指导项目,并成为整个学校教育计划不可或缺的重要组成部分。进入21世纪,美国教育界对提高学生学业成绩和教育问责的高度关注,使学生指导工作也面临问责新挑战。关注学生成绩和辅导员工作绩效成为美国学校学生指导发展的新趋势。

【Abstract】 The insufficiency of student guidance in Chinese schools is a realistic problem deserves our reflection. At prensent, the developmental student guidance has been incorporated into development plan of our high schools, but how to practice still need to explore and learn from the advanced experience. The development of student guidance in American schools has many experiences deserve learn from and think about, but the research on it is still weak.The organized modern student guidance originated in the secondery schools in the United States at the turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries. Early student guidance in American secondery schools was almost equivalent to vocational guidance. After the 1920s, the objectives and content of the student guidance gradually expanded to various aspects, including educatioanal, personal and social issues of students’Before the World War Ⅱ, the student guidance in the K-12 public schools developed slowly across the United States. After World War Ⅱ, with the aid of the federal government’s strong support and active self-construction in the professional field, the guidance in the school is becoming more and more specialization. Moreover, the research and application of guidance theory is becoming more mature. By the 1970s, school guidance and counseling has become a recognized professional body, and the training and certification of school counselors is more standardized and instituionalized.Comprehensive school guidance was gradually accepted and implemented widely in the 1980s as a kind of new organized form of student guidance. By the end of the twentieth century, the comprehensive school guidance program had become the primary organizing and managing method of school guidance in many local school systems in the United States. Initially only some teachers were assigned to work part-time as vocational guidance worker, and now it has developed into a systematic, planned, organized and developmental school guidance project, and become an integral part of the entire school education programs. In the 21st century, improving student achievement and education accountability are the high concern in the school community, so that school guidance and the counselors are also facing new challenges of accountability. Attention to student achievement and counselors’performance has become a new trend of student guidance development in the Unted States.

移动知网

全球学术快报

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G571.2
  • 【下载频次】234
节点文献中: