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基于情境兴趣的中美高中地理教材设计比较研究 ——以美国《科学发现者》和我国人教版地理(必修1)为例

【作者】 王宁兵

【导师】 户清丽;

【作者基本信息】 陕西师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2017, 硕士

【副题名】以美国《科学发现者》和我国人教版地理(必修1)为例

【摘要】 兴趣是影响学习效果的重要因素,《普通高中地理课程标准(实验)》充分重视学生的地理学习需求和地理学习兴趣。学习兴趣一旦形成,将会自觉地引导学生产生学习行为并维持其既定目标。地理教材是学生接触到的第一信息源,所以我国地理课程改革的发展、学生地理学习能力的提升、地理学习方式的转变以及地理教学过程的优化都需要针对地理教材的兴趣研究。相对于个体兴趣来说,情境兴趣更容易操作和激发,能更好地在教学实践中加以利用,因此,从情境兴趣方面,进行中美高中地理教材设计比较研究能够借鉴他国优秀经验的同时完善我国教材设计的不足,立求为学生提供更高质量的学材。通过文献研究、内容分析、案例分析、比较分析等方法从情境兴趣角度对我国人教版高中地理(必修1)教材和美国《科学发现者》高中地理教材设计进行比较研究。本研究初步提出地理情境兴趣和地理教材情境兴趣的概念;归纳总结了地理教材情境兴趣的影响因素有五个:地理教材文本特征、地理教材任务特征、地理教材知识层次、地理教材价值取向及地理教材参与性活动的设计。从以上五个方面分别对中美高中地理教材设计进行比较研究得出:(1)从中美两套高中地理教材文本特征的比较看,多样生动的教材导入语、启发性较强的教材过渡语、形象具体化的语言、时代性强的教材选材、多样化的课文表述形态、连贯性较好的教材文本能够更好地唤起学习兴趣。建议我国高中地理教材设计上综合考量,增强导入语的吸引力;整体统筹,增强过渡语的启发性;教材语言描述形象化、具体化;课文表述形态多样化;教材标题清晰化。(2)从中美两套高中地理教材任务特征的比较看,明确的任务目标、自主性强的任务过程、开放性的任务结果、正确的任务方法、个别化的网络学习环境、赏心悦目的图像意境、温馨的情感环境方能够更好地唤起学习兴趣。建议我国高中地理教材设计上设置明确的任务目标,驱动地理学习;提供多选的任务类型,践行自主性学习;增加开放性问题比例,提倡创造性学习;加强学习方法的指导,鼓励发现学习;推进网络学习环境建设,适应学生的个别差异。(3)从中美两套高中地理教材知识层次的比较看,教材中综合理解和应用性知识比例高,能够更好地唤起学习兴趣。建议我国高中地理教材设计上适度提升地理教材的知识层次。(4)从中美两套高中地理教材价值取向的比较看,侧重生活、情感和科学的地理,能够更好地维持学习兴趣。建议我国高中地理教材设计上设置特定栏目,体现学习意义;针对学生的不同需要,凸显学习价值。(5)从中美两套高中地理教材参与性活动设计的比较看,设计良好的地理信息收集、整理和分析活动设计、地理问题发现与解决活动、地理小组合作学习活动、地理学习评价活动的设计,能够更好地维持学习兴趣。建议我国高中地理教材设计上合理安排活动比例,提倡探究性学习;提升学生竞争意识,践行合作性学习;制定评价标准,引导学生自我和学生间评价。本文的创新点:结合情境兴趣和地理教材的研究成果,初步提出地理情境兴趣的概念及类型、地理教材情境兴趣的概念及特点、地理教材情境兴趣的教学价值;结合影响情境兴趣的因素、地理教材特点和地理学科特点,总结得出影响地理教材情境兴趣的五个主要因素。从影响地理教材情境兴趣的五个主要因素出发,对中美两套教材进行较全面的比较研究。由于笔者的能力和时间有限,研究还存在不足之处:本文提出的地理教材情境兴趣概念、教学价值和影响因素是在借鉴前人研究成果和自我理解的前提下完成的,理论程度有限。

【Abstract】 Interest was an important factor affecting learning result. 《High School Geography Curriculum Standards)) paid attention to the needs of students learning geography and learning interest. Once learning interest formed, will let students learn geography and keep their goal consciously. Geography textbook is the first information source to students. Geography curriculum reform in our country, the development of students’ ability of the geography study, the change of study style and the geographical optimization of teaching process called on the study of interest of geography textbooks. To the individual interests, situation interest is easier to operate and stimulate, which can be used in teaching practice. Therefore, the study of the different between Sino-US high school geography textbook designed is important.Through literature research, content analysis, case studies, comparison analysis and from the perspective of situational interest, the study compared Sino-US textbooks design. In this study, the situation interest of geography and the situational interest of geography textbooks were discussed and defined. There were five factors affecting the situational interest of geography textbooks. They were text features of geography textbooks, task characteristics of geography textbooks, knowledge level of geography textbooks, value orientation of geography textbooks and Participatory design activities of geography textbooks. This paper draws a conclusion that based on the comparison of text features of Sino-US geography textbooks, various and vivid leading-in, interlanguage, the specific language, the new material of textbooks, various style of textbooks expression and consecutive text, which are interesting. This paper suggested that improve the attraction of leading-in and interlanguage, make the text language more specific and tittle more organized. Based on the comparison of task characteristics of Sino-US geography textbooks, task object, task process, task outcomes, task approach, web-based learning environment and emotion environment, which are interesting. This paper suggested that set clear task object, supply many style of task, add open question, supply methods, bulid the of environment web-based learning. Based on the comparison of knowledge level of Sino-US geography textbooks, comprehensive knowledge is interesting. This paper suggested that enhance the level of knowledge. Based on the comparison of value orientation of Sino-US geography textbooks, geography focusing life, geography focusing emotion and geography focusing science, which are interesting. This paper suggested that set up columns to show the meaning and value of learning. Based on the comparison of participatory design activities of Sino-US geography textbooks, the activity of collect-arrange-analyse geography information, the activity of discovery-solute geography question, the activity of group cooperation study and the activity of learning evaluation, which are interesting. This paper suggested that arrange reasonable proportion of activities, improve the competition awareness of student and establish evaluation criteria.The innovation of this paper is the first combination of situational interest and geography textbooks design. There are some concepts this paper defined. Because the author’s ability and time is limited, the exploration of the situation interest of geography textbooks is not good enough, hope to be able to continue to improve in the following research.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 陕西师范大学
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