【作者基本信息】 陕西师范大学， 教育硕士（专业学位）， 2017， 硕士
【摘要】 《高中地理课程标准》中提出了“培养未来公民必备的地理素养,关注人口、资源、环境和区域发展问题”。而高中地理必修Ⅱ以人文地理为主,教学内容正契合这一主题。问题导学教学法(the teaching method of problem based learning,简称PBL教学法)是以导学案为载体,以问题为主线,以学生已有知识经验为基础,教师创设最佳情境提出问题,或启发学生提出问题,师生共同探讨解决问题,达到最佳教学效果的双边教学活动。问题导学教学法在高中人文地理教学中的应用,能提高学生地理学习的动机和兴趣,培养学生的问题意识和解决问题的能力,同时教师的教学技能也得到提升。采用文献研究法、问卷调查法、案例分析法、对比分析法,在调查问卷统计分析的基础上,分析问题导学教学法在高中人文地理教学中存在的问题,结合教学案例总结问题导学教学法在高中人文地理教学中的实施策略并提出优化建议。研究认为：(1)通过对问题导学教学法与问题解决教学法和学案导学教学法的比较,发现问题导学教学法有利于促进学生问题的生成,培养学生问题意识。(2)在高中人文地理教学中实施问题导学教学法,遵循启发性、层次性、互动性、适宜性和实用性等基本原则,是从复杂的问题情境中理解、学习人文地理学基本原理的有效途径。(3)问题导学教学法在高中人文地理教学中的实施环节主要有：学案导学推进问题,以充分发挥学案的导读、导思与导练功能；教师创设问题情境,以学生切身经验为起点,以网络媒体信息、诗词歌赋和角色扮演为背景创设问题情境；诱导学生提出问题,在宽松的学习环境中指导学生提问方法；小组合作探究问题,使学生明确合作学习的技巧与任务；提供指导解决问题,给予学生必要的学习资源和方法指导；成果展示全面评价,在相互交流成果的基础上系统评价教学要素。(4)提出问题导学教学法的优化建议：端正学生学习动机,提高学习兴趣；进行正确归因,提高学习的自我效能感等；教师提高教学素养,深入了解学生,精心设计问题情境,培养学生问题意识等；提供良好的教学资源和多元化的评价制度等,使之更好的服务于高中人文地理教学。
【Abstract】 The high school geography curriculum standard puts forward the point of view that it is necessary for citizens to cultivate geographic literacy and focus on population, resources, environment and regional development problems. However, the high school geography teaching content is just fit for this topic. Problem based learning (herein after referred to as the PBL teaching method) teaching method using guide learning case as the carrier, problem as the main line and based on the original knowledge experience by students, and teachers come up with the best problem situations or inspire the students to raise questions and then to discuss and solve the problems together, using bilateral teaching activities to achieve the best teaching effect. The application of PBL teaching method in high school geography teaching can improve students’ geography learning motivation and interest. At the same time, cultivate students’ problem consciousness and the ability to solve the problem. Moreover, improve the teachers’ teaching skills.Use the method such as literature research, questionnaire survey, case analysis and comparative analysis. Combining the teaching case and summarizing the PBL teaching method used in human geography teaching in high school, on the basis of analysis the questionnaire statistical, existing problems and causes of it, put forward the optimized suggestions for it.The research suggests that:(1) Through the comparison of the teaching method of PBL, problem solving and learning guide, found that PBL teaching method is beneficial to promoting students problems generated and cultivate students’ problem consciousness.(2) The implementation of PBL teaching method in the high school geography teaching should follows the principle of instructive, hierarchy, interactive, suitability, practicability and so on. It’s an effective way to understand and learn the basic principle of humanistic geography from the complex problem situations.(3) The main strategies for implementing PBL teaching method in the high school geography teaching just as follows:Using the learning guide teaching method to advance the problem, which give full play to the function of guide the preview, thinking and practice; Teachers create problems situations on the basis of that students experiences as a starting point and network media information, verses and role play as a background; Providing a relaxed learning environment and methods of ask questions to induce students to raise questions; In the team cooperation to explore the problem, which makes sure the students know skills and tasks clearly; Giving students the necessary learning resources and means to promote the students to solve problems successfully; Show the results and evaluate comprehensive, namely mutual communicate the achievements and evaluate the teaching elements system.(4) There are some limited in PBL teaching method, which the factors are from students, teachers and external teaching environment. In order to improve the effect of PBL teaching method, the author proposes the PBL teaching method optimization suggestions for the sake of better servicing for human geography teaching practice. Firstly, students must correct learning motivation and improve learning interest. Carrying on the correct attribution and improve learning self-efficacy. Moreover, teachers should take some measures, such as in-depth understanding of the students, improving teaching quality by oneself, designing problem situation carefully and cultivating students’ problem consciousness, etc. Finally, provide favorable teaching resources and the diversified evaluation systems, etc.
【Key words】 PBL teaching method； hign school human geography； implementation strategies； optimization；
- 【网络出版投稿人】 陕西师范大学