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诱思八环教学法在高中地理教学中的应用研究

【作者】 马晓寒

【导师】 周忠学;

【作者基本信息】 陕西师范大学, 教育硕士(专业学位), 2017, 硕士

【摘要】 基础教育课程改革纲要指出,教学应向着学生探究意识的提高、能力培养的方向转变。因此,应改变传统的教学方法,让教师成为学生的诱思者,引导学生积极参与到课堂教学活动中去。这就使得启发式教学越来越受到人们的关注。而地理学科又兼具自然科学和社会科学的双重学科属性,与人们的生活密切相关,但在传统教学方法下,地理课堂教学过分注重学生成绩的提高,忽视对学生能力的培养和探究意识的提升。因此,对当前高中地理课堂的教学方法进行研究成为当务之急。在新课改的背景下,泰山中学坚持引进来与走出去相结合,从本校的教学实际出发,在启发式教学的基础上加以创新,从而形成了诱思八环教学法,它实质上是启发式教学的一种。诱思八环教学法在一定程度上促进了学生能力发展,使学习的主动性提高,有利于实现教育目的、增强学生的学习兴趣。但在地理学科中的应用研究仍然不足。本文结合当前的基础教育改革,依据高中地理课程标准,通过教学实验,对诱思八环教学法在高中地理教学中的应用进行研究。首先,对诱思八环教学法的相关概念进行界定,指出了诱思八环教学法的基本流程和理论基础;其次,结合地理学科特点、课程标准以及学情对8个环节的应用进行具体阐述,并在阐述的基础上给出每一环节的教学案例;再者,通过实验对比、前后测问卷和教师访谈对诱思八环教学法的教学效果和适用性进行评价;最后在教师访谈和后测问卷的基础上,指出了诱思八环教学法存在的不足,并针对不足提出了相应的改进措施。从研究结果来看,有如下结论:1.尝试性的将诱思八环教学法应用到地理教学中,对每一环节的具体实施过程及注意问题进行了总结。应结合学生的兴趣和运用地图来创设问题情境,诱导学生主动思考、自主探究,并根据地理教学内容来选择探究方式,指导学生合作探究,培养学生能力,对教学的重难点进行精讲点拨,根据地理知识的特点和教学内容选择合适的建构方法进行知识建构,引导学生对地理知识进行反思;根据学生的生活经验、学科知识之间的联系和案例类比对知识进行拓展延伸,最终通过8环节层层相扣,达到诱思的目的,使课堂成为师生共同参与的课堂,落实教学目标。2.诱思八环教学法的教学效果优于传统教学法。实施了诱思八环教学法后,实验班比对照班的成绩高出5分;对地理感兴趣的学生比例提高了33.84%;93.65%的学生认为自己主动发现问题的能力和探究意识比以前有所增强;63.49%的学生认为诱思八环教学法对自己的表达能力有帮助,61.90%的学生在自己的观点和别人不一致时会坚持自己的观点,喜欢开放性问题的学生比例也提高了51.64个百分点;77.78%的学生认为师生关系更加融洽,比前测问卷提高了52.29个百分点,这就说明了诱思八环教学法提高了学生成绩、增强了学习兴趣、提升了探究意识、培养了学生的表达能力和思维能力,使师生关系走向融洽,教学效果优于传统教学法。3.地理的理性知识和程序性知识对诱思八环教学法更具有适用性。63.29%的学生喜欢探究理性知识,8名地理教师都认为程序性知识的学习过程与诱思八环教学法相吻合,更有利于诱思八环教学法8个环节的展开,这就说明地理的理性知识和程序性知识对诱思八环教学法更具有适用性。4.诱思八环教学法在地理教学中存在着地理感性知识和陈述性知识的不适用性、教师对于诱思点和探究环节把握不到位、时间分配固定化等不足,并针对不足,提出了改进对策。首先,教师应根据地理知识的性质,灵活使用教学方法,如直接采用教——学——读的方法对陈述性知识进行讲解;其次,应通过交流、讲座、培训等方式丰富教师的本体性知识、条件性知识、实践性知识和文化知识,提高教学组织和调控能力;最后,发挥教师的教学机智,根据新授课、讲评课和复习课的课型特点,合理分配各环节所用时间。

【Abstract】 Basic Education Curriculum Reform pointed out that teaching should be changed to the way of the students increase their awareness of exploration and the ability of self-cultivate. Therefore, we should change the traditional teaching methods. We should make the teachers become students’ enlightenment in order to guide students to actively participate in classroom teaching activities. This makes heuristic teaching attract more and more people’s attention. Geography dual subject property natural sciences and social sciences. It is closely related to people’s lives, but in the traditional teaching methods, geography teaching focus on improving students’ achievement excessively, and neglect the cultivation of students’ ability as well as the promotion of consciousness-exploring. Therefore, the researching on the methods of teaching high school geography become imperative.In the context of the new curriculum, Taishan High School integrating to bringing in and going out. It combined with out from school teaching reality, on the basic of elicitation teaching methods. It came out the eight-step teaching method for inducing thinking(ETMIT), which is one kind of elicitation teaching method. Currently, this method showed a positive functions. It works on the aspects of increasing students’ learning abilities and initiative. But applied research in geography teaching is still inadequate, there is no diversified thesis object to eight-ring induction thinking pedagogy.Combining the basic education reform, based on the geographical curriculum standards, through the way of scientific experiments, this thesis subjecting to the study of ETMIT use in high school teaching. First, it introduced the ETMIT basic models and theoretical basis. Secondly, it bound characteristics and geography curriculum standards and learning situation, it described the eight applications and qualified with cases in teaching process. Furthermore, it compared the experiments and the side effects induced on the application questionnaire ETMIT tests before and after. Finally, it based on interviews with teachers and post-test questionnaires, point out the shortcomings of ETMIT, and proposed improvements.From the research results, here lists the following conclusions:1. Trying to use ETMIT in geography teaching. Combine of students’ interest and use the map to create the problem situation to Induce students to think actively and inquiry independent. Explore aspects of cooperation should be based on the characteristics of teachers to choose teaching content to explore ways, guide students’ cooperative and train students’ability. Teachers should be pay attention to the key difficult s and be succinctly. In knowledge construction areas and be based on the characteristics of geographical knowledge and teaching content guiding students to choose the appropriate method of construction of knowledge and reflect on geographical knowledge. what’s more, teachers should make the training method diversity and focus on the reflective of the students. In expanding link, teacher can combine life experience and academic knowledge to complete the extend. Through eight link layers clasp, to achieve the goal of inducing thought and make the classroom teachers and students to participate in the classroom, as well as carry out the teaching goal finally.2.ETMIT’s effect is better than traditional teaching pedagogy. After the implementation of ETMIT, experimental class’s fraction is 5 higher than the control class. The proportion of students interested in geography increased by 33.84%.93.65% of the students think that their ability to proactively identify problems and sense of exploration than previously has been enhanced; 63.49% of the students thought that the eight-ring induction teaching skills provided help.61.90% of students who carry with different views against others will stick to their point of view. The proportion of students like open questions improved by 51.64%.77.78% of the students believe that relationship between students and teachers became more harmonious, which is improved by 52.29% than the pre-test questionnaire. That indicates that the lure ETMIT can improve students’ score, increase interests in learning, enhance the sense of exploration, cultivate students’ thinking skills and the make a harmonious relationship between teachers and students. It is more effective than traditional teaching method.3.Conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge of Geography is more suitable for ETMIT.63.29% of students like to explore the rational knowledge and 8 geography teachers believe the learning of conceptual and procedural knowledge coincide with ETMIT, They help to extend the eight processes of this method. This shows that conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge of geography to lure eight Central Teaching thinking more applicable.4.The eight-ring induction thinking pedagogy has disadvantages in the geography teaching geography with perceptual knowledge and declarative knowledge communicability. Teachers lack of skills in guiding students’ thinking, exploring links, immobilization of time allocation the. For that defects, firstly, teachers should based on the types of knowledge from geography book, use the teaching methods flexibility, Such as adopt the method of teaching-learning-read the declarative knowledge directly. Secondly, Through the communication, lectures, training, etc. to enrich teachers’ professional knowledge, improve teaching organization control ability. AT last, the teachers should accord to the characteristics of different class type and arrange the time of each section reasonable.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 陕西师范大学
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