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基于专长视角的学术信息检索认知能力研究

【作者】 杨瑜

【导师】 连榕;

【作者基本信息】 福建师范大学, 发展与教育心理学, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 专长是专家所拥有的在某一领域的特殊技能,这种技能往往是经过长期的教育培训和实践获得的丰富经验的体现。对于不同领域专长的探讨是当前专长研究的主要趋势。而学术信息检索专长的研究则较为缺乏。所谓学术信息检索是一种探索性检索,需要依托用户的学科背景知识及检索知识,根据信息需求的特点,通过与检索系统的不断交互,最终获得所需学术信息的过程。目前,对于学术信息检索的研究大多还是关注行为层面,缺乏相关认知机制的探讨。因此,本研究尝试基于专家—新手研究范式,通过问卷调查、行为观察、出声思维、眼动实验、事后访谈等多种方法从主观到客观,从宏观到微观,对学术信息检索的认知能力进行具体的实证研究,从而分析归纳专家、熟手、新手学术信息检索的认知特征。这一研究对于丰富领域专长的研究范围,对于探讨网络环境下人类智能活动的特点,对于智能搜索的研究以及信息检索的教学与实践工作都有重要的理论与实践意义。本研究包括了三个部分:第一部分为《学术信息检索认知能力量表》的构建与测查。通过探讨学术信息检索行为及认知能力对学术信息检索行为的影响,提出假设注意力、记忆力以及思维能力是影响学术信息检索认知能力的主要因素。并通过用户访谈、征求专家意见以及对较有影响力的信息检索评价指标体系的分析,提出了《学术信息检索认知能力评测量表》编制设想。通过对567名被试的初测及对结果的探索性分析、验证性分析、信度分析,最终形成包括检索性注意、检索性记忆、检索性思维三个维度17道题的评测量表。接着利用编制的《学术信息检索认知能力评测量表》对728名高校学生及141名高校专职检索人员进行正式施测,探讨了不同类型(性别、专业、年级)被试在学术信息检索认知能力上的差异;不同检索频率、是否了解检索知识被试在学术信息检索认知能力上的差异;新手、熟手、专家在学术信息检索认知能力上的差异。第二部分为学术信息检索认知能力的行为实验。在真实情境下设置检索任务,采用行为观察法,对15名被试(新手5名、熟手5名、专家5名)采用单因素实验设计,以行为观察结合出身思维方法考察三组被试完成检索任务时的行为特征,包括完成任务的总体情况、信息需求的表征特点、与检索系统的交互特点以及对检索结果的选择特点。侧重探讨了不同水平被试对相关知识的回忆与提取、问题解决策略、思维模式特点。第三部分为学术信息检索认知能力的眼动实验。在前两个实证研究的基础上,筛选相关被试38名(新手12名、熟手14名、专家12名)采用3(检索水平:专家、熟手、新手)×3(任务类型:简单任务、学科相关复杂任务、学科无关复杂任务)混合实验设计,对专家、熟手、新手在与检索系统交互过程中的眼动特征,包括总体眼动特征,检索界面加工的眼动特征、检索结果显示页面加工的眼动特征进行了考察,侧重对注意选择性及认知加工负荷特点进行了探讨。本研究的主要结论有:(1)从大一到硕士阶段,各年级间的学术信息检索认知能力有显著差异,但不同年级间、不同维度间的差异不同。(2)是否了解相关检索知识以及使用检索系统的频率与学术信息检索认知能力有交互效应。(3)专家、熟手、新手无论在总分还是在检索性注意维度、检索性记忆维度、检索性思维维度均存在极其显著差异。(4)在完成任务质量上,专家、熟手、新手间有极其显著差异,但在不同任务水平表现有所不同。专家、熟手、新手的差异总体上呈现随任务难度的增加而增大的趋势,且在学科无关复杂任务水平熟手开始出现中间水平效应。(5)在完成任务的效率上,专家、熟手、新手间有极其显著差异,但在不同任务水平表现有所不同。专家、熟手、新手的差异整体上呈现随着任务难度的增加而缩小的趋势。(6)专家、熟手、新手在学术信息检索上的主要认知特征:专家与检索系统交互中属于任务驱动的搜索策略,注意选择性好,搜索过程简洁有效,在完成任务中有固定的“模板”,已形成该领域的熟练记忆,能针对具体情境有效解决问题,属于灵活性的思维模式;熟手与检索系统交互中属于任务驱动的搜索策略,注意选择性好,搜索的质量与效率受任务难度影响;熟手的“模板”是块状的,这种“块”散落在整个检索领域的知识结构中,未联结成有意义的“模板”,在问题解决中能通过针对性地尝试策略,最终解决检索问题,属于经验型的思维模式。新手与检索系统交互中属于系统特征驱动的搜索策略,注意选择性较差,搜索过程冗长低效;相关领域的记忆是零星的甚至是缺失的,面对同样的情景,他们无法像熟手那样迁移、联想,在尝试中找到办法,因而其问题解决策略往往是低效甚至无效的,是一种无针对性的尝试策略,属于盲目型思维模式。

【Abstract】 Expertise is a special skill in one particular field owned by an expert, which is embodied in his rich experience acquired in his long-term education, training and practice. The main research trend of expertise has focused on the expertise in different fields. But the researches on the expertise of the academic information retrieval are less. The so-called academic information retrieval is an exploratory search, where a user, relying his subject background knowledge and the characteristics of information, acquires the academic information finally by means of a continuous interaction with a retrieval system. At present, the researches of academic information retrieval are mostly concerned with behavior level, hardly with cognitive mechanism.This study consists of three parts.The first part is about the construction and survey of " Scale of cognitive ability of academic information retrieval", in which the main factors including attention, memory and thing ability that have effect on the cognitive ability of academic information retrieval are proposed by explanation of the behaviors of academic information retrieval and the cognitive ability effect on their retrieval. Furthermore, the "Scale of evaluation of cognitive ability of academic information retrievals" is worked out depending on the user interviews, expert advice and the analysis on the influential evaluation index of information retrieval. The scale of evaluation with three dimensions of retrieval attention, retrieval memory and retrieval thinking including 17 testing items " is built after the initial test and result analysis, confirmatory analysis, reliability analysis on 567 subjects. Then, the tests on 728 college students and 141 professional college retrieval persons are carried out based on "Scale of cognitive of academic information retrieval" to explore the differences of their cognitive abilities in academic information retrieval with different classifications(sex, subject and grade), differences of their searching frequency, differences of cognitive ability in academic information retrieval with different retrieval knowledge acquirement, and differences of cognitive ability of academic information retrieval between novices, intermediates and experts.The second part is the behavior experiment on the cognitive ability of academic information retrieval. In a real situation, the behavior observation is adopted on 15 subjects(5 novices,5 intermediates and 5 experts) with single factor experimental design to research the behavior characteristics of three groups of participants through action observation combined with background thinking method, when they complete their tasks, including the overall results of task completing, the characteristics of the representation of the information demanded, the features of the interaction with the retrieval system, and the selections of the retrieval results, which is concentrated on exploration of the features of the recall and extraction of knowledge, the strategies of problem solving, thinking mode in different participants with different background.The third part is the experiment of eye movement on the cognitive ability of academic information retrieval, involving selection of 38 participants(12 novices,14 intermediate,12 experts), adoption of 3(retrieval level:expert, intermediate, novice) times 3(task type:simple task, complex task related with subject, complex task with subject independent) of mixed experimental design, to survey the features of eye movement in their interaction with the retrieval system, including the general characteristics of eye movement, the characteristics of eye movement of retrieval interface processing, characteristics of eye movement of the retrieval result page processing, with being concentrated on the features of their selective attention and cognitive processing load.The main conclusions of this study are:(1) There are significant differences in cognitive ability of academic information retrieval among different grades ranging from first year undergraduate to postgraduate period for master degree. And the difference varies among different grades and dimensions.(2) There is an interaction effect between the relevant retrieval knowledge, retrieval frequency and academic information retrieval cognitive ability. For the experts, whether they have the background knowledge has no significant effect on retrieval quality but it does affect the retrieval efficiency. For the skilled, whether they have the background knowledge may affect both retrieval quality and retrieval efficiency.(3) Among the experts, the skilled and the novices, there are extremely significant distinctions either in total or in various dimensions such as retrieval attention, retrieval memory, retrieval thinking.(4) On the quality of completing the task, there is a tendency that the differences among the experts, the skilled and the novices increase as the difficulty of the task enhances. And intermediate effect begins to emerge in the skilled ones in discipline-unrelated complex task level.(5) On the efficiency of completing the task, in general, there are extremely significant differences among the experts, the skilled and the novices. And the experts are superior to the skilled, the skilled superior to novices. There is a tendency that the overall differences among the experts, the skilled and the novices decrease as the difficulty of the task increases.(6)The main cognitive characteristics in academic information retrieval of the expert, the skilled and the novices are:the experts are adopting task-driven search strategies, with good selective attention, so their search process is simple and effective. The experts have a fixed "template" in the completion of the task, and have formed skilled memory in this field; therefore they can effectively solve the problem in specific situations, which can be classified as the flexible thinking mode. The skilled are also using task-driven search strategies, with good selective attention, but their search quality and efficiency may be influenced by the task difficulty. The "template" of the skilled are blocks, which scatter in the intellectual structure of the searching field and are not connected to form a meaningful "template". But these blocks enable the skilled to solve problems by targeted trying strategy, which belongs to the empirical thinking mode. The novices are employing feature-driven search strategy, with poor selective attention, so their search process is lengthy and inefficient. The memory of the novices in related field is sporadic and even missing. Thus, facing the same situation, they are unable to transfer, associate and find solution in trying as the skilled do. So their strategy, a non-targeted trying strategy, is often ineffective, which belongs to blind thinking mode.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 福建师范大学
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