中国基础教育博硕士论文库

节点文献

明代福建府、州、县学研究

【作者】 许莹莹

【导师】 徐晓望; 戴显群;

【作者基本信息】 福建师范大学, 历史学 中国古代史, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 明代福建学校教育承前启后、既往开来,在福建教育发展史上占有十分重要的地位。有明一代,福建各府、州、县普遍设学,不论通都大邑还是山陬海隅,皆有学校之设,福建地区文化教育事业的面貌焕然一新。建学后,各地官员、士绅、民众等各种力量,始终有意愿,也有能力,关注学校修建工作,学校维护状况总体良好。各地学校在前朝基础上,进一步发展和完善,逐渐形成了集祭祀、学习、生活于体的设施完备、规模宏大的建筑群,基本满足师生的各种需要,为士子专心读书治学提供了极大的便利。明代,福建学校的管理体制进一步完善。省一级设提学官一职,负责一省学政,标志着明代地方教育管理的规范化和专门化。各学校的教官选任更加规范,教官数量充足,为明代福建学校教育的顺利开展提供了有力的保障。各学校的生员入学趋于规范和严格。明中后期,福建士子需通过“县试、府试、提学试”三场考试,方可入学。士子考取生员,将获得一定优待,可通过各种贡途成为监生,或通过科举考试步入仕途。为保证教育质量,明朝福建学政因地制宜,开创性地推行“格眼总册”、“门簿”等制度,取得良好效果。明代,福建学校高度重视生员的品行和学业。福建文庙祭祀制度日臻完备,在实现道德教育方面发挥了重要作用。各级学校主要讲授儒家经典,特别是程朱理学,地位十分突出。各种考试名目繁多,其中,以提学官主持的岁考、科考最为重要,旨在分别确定生员的升降赏罚和乡试资格。不过,学校教育受科举的负面影响越来越大,以至于逐渐沦为科举的附庸。但无论如何,明代福建学校教育成就巨大,对福建地方社会产生了重要影响。不论是在文教水平的提升、人才的培养,还是在社会结构的变化、社会风俗的改善、地方文化的建设诸方面,莫不有积极的建树。可以说,明代福建学校教育在一定程度上塑造了地方社会的文化面貌,在福建教育发展史上留下了深刻的印记。

【Abstract】 The Fujian school education in the Ming Dynasty, carried on the past heritage, opened up the future, and thus occupied a very important position in the history of Fujian education.In the Ming Dynasty, schools were widely set up in Fujian, with one school in one administrative unit(city, state or county), whether in the central districts or in those remote regions, considerably freshening up the culture and education. After seting up schools, forces including local officials, the gentry and the common people, always would and also had the ability to engage in the school building. So, the overall maintenance of schools was very good. Based on the past dynasties’fruits, the Fujian schools of the Ming Dynasty gained a further development and improvement, gradually acting as fully-equipped and large-scale buildings with a set of facilities of worship, study and living, which almost met various needs of both teachers and students, and thus provided a great convenience.What’s more, the administration system of school was further improved. In the provincial capital, a post of minister of education was set up to manage the total educational affairs of the whole province, which marked the standardization and the specialization of local educational management in the Ming Dynasty. The approximation of teachers was more standardized. Those sufficient and reliable teachers provided a powerful guarantee for the smooth development of Fujian school education. The students’entrance examination was more regularized and stricter. In the late Ming Dynasty, before entering school, the Fujian people had to pass three exams by different government officials of county, city(state) and Province. Once gaining the entry, students would enjoy some benefits. What’s more, students could have access to Guozijian or become officials through the imperial examination. In order to guarantee the education quality, according to local conditions, the Fujian government creatively adopted some effective measures such as "check book", "door book" and so on.Besides, the Fujian schools in the Ming Dynasty paid great attention to students’ behaviour and study. The sacrificial system of the Confucious temple became more and more complete, playing an increasingly significant role in the realization of moral education. The main teaching contents were the Confucian classics, especially that prominent neo-Confucianism. In various kinds of exams, the most important two were the "sui-exam"and the "ke-exam", which were both presided over by the minister of education, separately determining whether students would be awarded or take the imperial exam held in the provincial capital. But with the more and more negative impact of the imperial examination, unavoidably the Fujian school education gradually became a vassal.However, in any case, the Fujian school education in the Ming Dynasty achieved great accomplishments and had an important influence on the local society. Whether in the promotion of local culture and education, the cultivation of various talents, the change of social structure, the improvement of social custom or the construction of local culture, the Fujian school education always had positive contributions. To some extent, it could be said that the Fujian school education in the Ming Dynasty shaped the cultural features of local society, thus leaving a deep imprint in the history of Fujian education.

移动知网

全球学术快报

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 福建师范大学
节点文献中: