中国基础教育博硕士论文库

节点文献

清末浙江新式教育在设定框架下的定量、定性比较研究(1902-1911)

【作者】 杜志明

【导师】 汪征鲁;

【作者基本信息】 福建师范大学, 中国近现代史, 2017, 博士

【摘要】 清末浙江各地新式教育在学堂与学生数量、经费及学务资产等方面严重失衡,且有着“强者愈强,弱者愈弱”的趋势。1902-1909年浙江学生数量占全国比重经过了一个急剧下降到缓慢回升的过程,尤其是1907-1909年在各省学生数量排名只能达到中等偏上位置,人口拥有学生数量百分比略低于全国平均水平。清末浙江新式教育从开全国风气之先到踉跄不前,这艘传统文教昌盛的“大船”在全国轰轰烈烈的废科举、兴学堂的大潮中遇到了“掉头难”问题,过于沉重的思想文化包袱成为新式教育阻碍,当一部分先进的浙江人走在时代前列时,一部分绅民还在旧时代“沉睡”,并强烈反抗任何试图“叫醒”他们的人。清末浙江呈现出“官弱绅强”、“官贫民富”的局面,新式教育“成也绅民,败也绅民”,初等小学在乡民的不认可与反对下发展缓慢,进而制约了高等小学与中学的发展。浙江各类学堂教员合格率远低于全国平均水平,主要是师范教育投入力度不足所致;其次是传统士绅把持学务,不容师范毕业生染指教职岗位,师范毕业生被迫到私塾任教的现象比比皆是;再者是部分师范毕业生贪图大城市繁华生活,不愿意到小城市及偏远地区任教。清末浙江地方政府教育经费投入严重不足,过分依赖民间就地筹款,主事者四面出击,八面树敌,与官吏胥役、士绅豪富、僧尼信徒、其它新政及学界内部发生激烈冲突,导致教育控案不断,毁学事件时有发生。总体上来看,清末浙江高等、法政、军警、师范等需要资金较大、非官力不能完成的教育较为落后,初等小学发展速度处于中间,普通中学、高等小学、两等小学较为发达。民国初年浙江这艘文教“大船”在大清王朝轰然倒台的巨浪冲击下完成了掉头,各类学堂学生数量实现了爆破性增长,再度恢复了其传统文教大省的地位。

【Abstract】 The modern education processes in per regional of Zhejiang province were unbalanced in the late of Qing dynasty, such as the numbers of schools and students、 funding、the property of study affairs. So the trend, which the superiority would be stronger and the inferior would be poorer, was obvious. The percentage of the national students occupied by Zhejiang province witnessed the journey which sharply decreased at the beginning and then raised slowly from 1902 to 1909, especially during 1907 to 1909 its ranking merely exceed medium, and the percentage of students allocated by the population was blow the national average level. Faced the "change" difficulty in the tide of abandoning the imperial examinations, Zhejiang province’s modern education processes in the late of Qing dynasty had undergone situation from avocation to stagnation, which caused by the heavy burden of culture and thought. While some have gone before times, other individuals in Zhejiang province were still addicted in the old days and resisted the people who try to wake them up. Zhejiang province in the late of Qing dynasty show the picture that the officers inferior than the gentlemen and the citizens richer than the officials. As a consequence, the modern education processes were dominated by the gentlemen and the citizens. The elementary schools have progressed slowly with non-admission and objection from villagers, and it stopped higher primary school and middle school from developing. The rate of the qualified faculty in Zhejiang province was far blow the national average level. There were some reasons led to the phenomenon:firstly, investing rarely in teacher education was the dominant factor; secondly, the severity unbalanced proportion of teachers and students、schools controlled by the traditional gentlemen and the graduates from teacher college be forced to work in private school after rejecting; thirdly, some graduated from teacher college won’t want to work in small city or remote areas, because they were fascinated with prosperous live in the metropolis. Cases in education and damage schools events were frequently occurred, many factors contributed to these issues:firstly, investing in education was scarcity and relied heavily on the funding from the folk; secondly, it conflicted with the officers^ the traditional gentlemen、the priests and worshippers、others from new government or education fields. Generally speak, the higher、the law and politics、the military and police、the teacher education needed much funding, and the educations which must helped by government’s strength were left behind. The middle schools、the higher and two class elementary schools were advanced, however, the elementary schools were developed with the moderate speed. With the wave of the Qing dynasty collapsed, Zhejiang province just like ship finished the "change" task in the early stage of the Republic of China (1912-1949). Then, the number of students in varieties schools was leap growth, and the Zhejiang province retrieved the status that the traditional culture and education’s powerful.

移动知网

全球学术快报

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 福建师范大学
节点文献中: