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超扫描视角下师生互动的脑机制研究

【作者】 耿彬彬

【导师】 李先春;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 基础心理学, 2018, 硕士

【摘要】 教学过程充满着丰富的师生互动,师生互动也就是教师和学生通过交流,在心理或行为上相互作用和影响的过程。师生互动的形式包括言语互动和非言语互动,如提问,面部表情,手势等,这些互动对信息传递有重要作用。有研究表明,交互质量对教学效果有着重要影响。关于教学的认知研究都忽略了教学过程师生互动这一显著特点,使得对教学过程的脑机制研究缺乏高生态效度的研究证据。最近有研究发现,在苏格拉底式对话教学中,能迁移的学生相比于不能迁移的学生,和老师的大脑激活模式更一致。这篇研究的缺陷在于,只对能迁移组和不能迁移组的脑间同步性做了差异分析,却无法将脑间同步性与行为学指标做相关;并没有细化到具体哪个位置的脑区产生了这种脑间同步性。本文将基于此对教学过程师生互动的脑-脑机制深入研究,同时考察交互质量在其中的作用。我们选用概率论和金融两种教学材料来操纵信息传递这一因素,设置面对面和背对背两种教学情境来操纵交互质量这一因素,借助近红外超扫描技术,在教学过程中同步记录师生两人的脑活动,用小波变换相干分析方法(WTC)来计算被试对脑间同步性,为了测量教学效果,我们设置了测验环节,来检测学生对所学内容能否迁移。同时我们在测验后还通过问卷测量了自我效能,任务价值,情绪等额外变量,帮助探讨信息传递和交互质量影响教学效果的行为学机制。结果发现:(1)信息成功传递且交互质量高的条件下,在额叶眼动区,背外侧前额叶,额极区与威尔尼克区,发现显著的师生脑间同步性增强;信息成功传递且交互质量低的条件下,在额极区,发现显著的师生脑间同步性增强。信息传递失败的条件下,没有发现显著的脑间同步性增强。(2)额极区的脑间同步性增强受信息传递显著影响。额叶眼动区的脑间同步性增强受交互质量显著影响。背外侧前额叶的脑间同步性增强受信息传递和交互质量的交互作用影响,即在信息成功传递时,交互质量高的条件下,相比于交互质量低的条件下,该脑区脑间同步性增强显著增加。(3)信息成功传递条件下,发现额叶的脑间同步性增强与测验成绩和交互质量显著正相关。本文揭示了师生脑间同步性增强是教学成功的标志,只有当教学成功,信息成功传递时,师生才会出现显著的脑间同步性增强。同时本文还揭示了在信息成功传递的条件下,交互质量显著影响师生脑间同步性增强,而师生脑间同步性又和教学效果显著相关,交互质量越高,脑间同步性增强越大,测验成绩越高。进而从脑机制上说明了交互质量对教学过程的重要作用。

【Abstract】 The teaching process is full of rich interaction between teachers and students,teacher and student interaction refers to all the interaction between the teacher and the students,including verbal interaction and nonverbal interaction,such as questions,facial expressions,gestures,Studies have shown that the quality of interaction has an important impact on teaching effectiveness.However,the cognitive research on teaching before focusing on the individual as the boundary of the laboratory task,only concerned about the single brain mechanism,both ignore the teaching process of teacher and student interaction this salient feature,making the teaching process of brain mechanism lack Evidence of high ecological validity.Recent studies have found that students who migrate in the Socrates dialogue teaching are more consistent with the teacher’s brain activation pattern than those who can not migrate.The drawback of this study is that only the difference between the migratory group and the non-migratory group can be analyzed,but the inter-brain synchronization can not be correlated with the behavioral indicators;and there is no refinement to the specific position of the brain area produced this brain synchronization.This article will be based on this to study brain-brain mechanism under interaction between teachers and students.We use the probability theory and financial two different experimental materials,manipulate the information transmission,And respectively set up teachers and students face to face and back to back two experimental situations,manipulate the interactive quality,complete the teaching process with fnirs,WTC was used to calculate the brain-brain mechanism of the interaction between teachers and students during the teaching process.The results showed that:(1)In the condition of successful transmission of information and high quality of interaction,there was a significant increase in the synchronization between the frontal eye field area,the dorsal lateral frontal lobe,the frontal porlar region and the Wilnick area.In the absence of information transmission,no significant improvement in brain synchronization was found.(2)Increased interbrain synchrony in the frontal porlar region is significantly affected by information transfer.Increased interbrain synchrony in the dorsal lateral frontal lobe is affected by the interaction of information transmission and interaction quality,(3)Under the condition of successful information transmission,it was found that the enhancement of interbrain synchrony in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with the test scores and the quality of the interaction.This paper verifies that the inter-brain synchronization between teachers and students is a sign of successful teaching.Only when the teaching is successful and the information is successfully transmitted,there is significant inter-brain synchronization between teachers and students.At the same time,this paper also reveals that the interaction quality is closely related to the synchronization enhancement between teachers and students,and the synchronization enhancement between teachers and students can significantly predict the teaching effect.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
  • 【分类号】G44
  • 【下载频次】49
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